Chapter 11 Quiz
Terms in this set (32)
Term coined by Alexis de Tocqueville in 1835 to describe Americans as people no longer bound by social attachments to classes, castes, associations, or family.
Is a philosophical and literary movement of the 1800s that emphasized living a simple life while celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination. This movement influenced the 2nd Great Awakening.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Unitarian minister who left and rejected all organized religion. He argued that people were trapped by their inherit customs and institutions. Most popular Lyceum speaker.
Charles Grandison Finney
Most infamous of the 2nd Great Awakening circuit preachers. He described his conversion coming from individual time in the woods, joining with god.
Existed outside of Boston and was an Utopian experiment. Incorporated communal experience, intellectual and spiritual pursuits. Ultimately not successful because all intellectuals: no one knew how to farm. Fire in 1846 ended the experiment. With this failure, Transcendentalists stopped trying to create a new society, but rather reform the one that existed.
New American Culture
Established due to the influence of transcendentalism on American writers and artists.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in "Walden, or Life in the Woods". He emphasized individuality and rejection of social norms. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support the Mexican War.
American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism. Her book "Woman in the Nineteenth Century" is considered the first major feminist work in the United States. She believed that every individual (including women) could have a relationship with God and have independence. Also known for editing the Transcendentalist journal "The Dial".
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, "Leaves of Grass". He also believed in the collective nature of humanity.
Wrote "The Scarlet Letter" which warns of excessive individualism; results in degradation, not liberation.
Wrote "Moby Dick" which is a scathing critique of the dogged pursuit of individualism.
Communities founded to escape the competitiveness of American life, regulate moral behavior, and create cooperative lifestyles. Questioned traditional sexual norms, capitalistic values, and class divisions. The best-known of these included Brook Farm, New Harmony, and the Oneida Community.
Established in 1770. The name comes from the lively dance worship. They emphasized simple, communal living and were all expected to practice celibacy. First transplanted to America from England by Mother Ann Lee. Made up of six thousand members by 1840, though by the 1940's the movement had largely died out.
A Utopian socialist movement started by Charles Fourier. He wanted to counter the current industrial system to replace boredom of factory life. He advocated different forms of work each day as well as relatively free sexual activity.
Led by John Humphrey Noyes, who argues that he's achieved a state of Christian perfection untainted by sin. This movement comes out of the perfectionist movement. Rejected traditional notions of family and marriage and practiced a complex marriage system in which all residents were married to each other.
The Perfectionist Movement
A movement that believed that the Christ 2nd Coming already happened and therefore people could aspire to sinless perfection in their earthly lives.
Religious group that was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, who believed he saw God and was chosen to be a prophet. He published the "Book of Mormon". Developed rapidly during the Second Great Awakening. They were persecuted or attacked by many for their religious beliefs such as voting as a unit and polygamy. They moved from Illinois to Utah after their leader, Joseph Smith, was murdered by an anti-Mormon mob in 1844. Brigham Young became the new Mormon leader after Smith was killed. Significant in western settlement, cooperative nature of the group allowed for irrigation and other infrastructure.
Popular in the 1830s: white actors in blackface presented comic routines that combined racist caricature and social criticism.
Formed because native-born New Yorkers saw the city changing. Called for a halt to immigration, persecution, restricted job opportunities, temperance, anti-Catholic. American Republican Party took the city election in 1844.
Came out of the Second Great Awakening and its religious objection to human bondage (viewed as anti-republican and a sin). Demand for immediate, uncompensated emancipation led to impassioned political debates and sectional conflict.
Founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Supported education, temperance, and hard work.
David Walker's "Appeal"
A stirring pamphlet that used biblical language to advocate for slave revolts. Many African American activists thought this was too radical, but pushed for "race equality" and to use every legal means to protest and end slavery.
Nat Turner's Revolt
Uprising of slaves in Southampton County, Virginia, in the summer of 1831 led by Nat Turner which resulted in the death of 55 white people. Turner hoped that slaves on neighboring plantations would continue to join the revolt, but the white militia ended the revolt. 40 blacks killed. 15 heads were put on poles to warn against other slave revolts. Turner was hanged. Virginia's legislature debated gradual emancipation and colonization, but the vote failed. This was the last time voluntary manumission was debated in the South. Instead, slave codes were toughened.
William Lloyd Garrison
Was the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator" and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. In the first issue of "The Liberator", he called for the "immediate and uncompensated emancipation of the slaves."
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. They were one of the first women to publicly support both abolition and women's rights.
The Underground Railroad
A network of abolitionists that secretly helped slaves escape to freedom by setting up hiding places and routes to the North. Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass are key people to its success. Resulted in about 100 escaped slaved per year.
The idea that women could do a lot of good in the world through education and reform movements. They should stay close to issues that were feminine. They should stay out of politics, the marketplace, courts, and legislatures.
The Cult of True Womanhood
Refers to the confinement of woman to the house and home - restriction to the private sphere. Values included purity, piety, domesticity, and submissiveness.
Prisons, Asylums, Education
Horace Mann, Dix, and Catharine Beecher advocated for longer school years, increased teacher qualifications, and established academies for women.
Women's presence in political meeting was controversial. The more antagonism, the more women began to feel that they need to fight for both African American rights and women's rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton termed this which referred to: no rights, no individuality in marriage.
Seneca Falls Convention 1848
This convention was organized and led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. The "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" issued by this convention demanded greater rights for women. The declaration's first sentence clearly stated this goal: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal." Called for women's rights in the following areas: (1) suffrage, (2) right to retain property after marriage, (3) Greater divorce and child custody rights, (4) Equal educational opportunities.
Worked to reform the treatment of people with mental and emotional disabilities (Separation of mentally ill from criminal prisons). She was not involved in the women's rights movement.
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