Biology: chapter 12 vocab words
Terms in this set (29)
A purine base that is a component of DNA and RNA, forming a base pair with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA. Adenine is also part of other biologically important compounds, such as ATP and NAD.
a sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. It is a sequence of only three nucleotides.
any of the pairs of the hydrogen-bonded purine and pyrimidine bases that form the links between the sugar-phosphate backbones of nucleic acid molecules: the pairs are adenine and thymine in DNA, adenine and uracil in RNA, and guanine and cytosine in both DNA and RNA.
sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. DNA and RNA molecules are written in a language of four nucleotides. The language of proteins includes 20 amino acids.
complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle. In nature complementarity is the base principle of DNA replication and transcription as it is a property shared between two DNA or RNA sequence.
one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA. This if found in DNA along with the other three main bases: adenine, guanine, and thymine. Cytosine is one of the four main bases.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function. The DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. DNA is not genetic material because it has missing characteristics.
This catalyzes the addition of appropriate nucleotides to the new DNA strand. The nucleotides are added to the 3' end of the new strand. DNA polymerase is an enzyme.
The coding sequence the remain in the final mRNA are called exons. The sequences that have intervening sequences are called introns. Introns and extend are similar but not to be confused.
The sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines the specific amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins. It is the biochemical basis of heredity and nearly universal in all organisms.
the biochemical instructions that translate the genetic information present as a linear sequence of nucleotide triplets in messenger RNA into the correct linear sequence of amino acids for the synthesis of a particular peptide chain or protein.
Compare codon, translation (def 9).
a purine base, that is a fundamental constituent of DNA and RNA, in which it forms base pairs with cytosine. Guanine is a purine base. It formed pairs with cytosine
any of the enzymes that use the energy derived from the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to unwind the double stranded helical structure of nucleic acids. It is any of the enzymes.
Twisted other. It was discovered by scientist Wilkins, and is formed be by two strands of of nucleotides twisted around each other.
Molecules are long strands of RNA nucleotides that are formed complementary to one strand of DNA. They travel from the nucleus to the ribosome to direct synthesis of a sordid protein
A permanent change in a cells DNA. Sometimes cells make mistakes during replication, however these mistakes are rare, and the cell has repair mechanism that can repair se damage.
He phosphate groups in DNA create a negative charge, which attracts the DNA to the positively charged histone and formed a nucleosome. The nucleosome then groups together in to chromoton fibers.
Involve a chemical change in just one base pair and can be enough to cause a genetic disorder. A point mutation in which one base is exchanged for another is called mutation.
Catalyzes the addition of app route nucleotides to the new DNA strands. The nucleotides are added to the 3' end of the new strand, DNA polymerase continues adding new DNA nucleotides.
the bases adenine and guanine, which are fundamental constituents of nucleic acids. A colorless crystalline organic base that is the parent compound of various biologically important derivatives.
bases found in DNA and RNA. In DNA and RNA, these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary purines. Thus, in DNA, the purines adenine and guanine pair up with the pyrimidines thymine and cytosine, respectively.
Parental strands of DNA separate, serve as templates, and produce DNA molecules that have one strand of parental DNA and one strand of new DNA. DNA replication occurs during the interphase of mitosis and meiosis.
Ribonucelic acid (RNA)
Single stranded and composed of repeating nucleotide units of ribose sugar, phosphate groups, and nitrogenous base. It can be double stranded in some viruses and siRNA. Ribonuclease acid is RNA.
The 5' end of mRNA connects to the ribosome. This is where the code is read and translated to make a protein through a process called translation. In translation, tRNA molecules act as interpreters of the mRNA codon sequence.
Pyridine base found in DNA and paired with adenine. The four bases of a nucleotides are found in DNA. thymine is paired with adenine in DNA sequences and is replaced by uracil in mRNA.
The first step of of central dogma involves the synthesis of mRNA from DNA in a process called transcription. Through transcription, the DNA code is transferred to mRNA in the nucleus. The mRNA can then take the code into the cytoplasm for protein synthesis.
Smaller segments of RNA nucleotides that transport amino acids to the ribosome. The is the third type of RNA. Of the three types in order, there is messenger RNA ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
Once in the cytoplasm the 5' end of the mRNA connects to the ribosome. This is where the code is read and translated to make a protein through a process called translation. In translation, tRNA molecules act as the interprets of the mRNA codon sequence.
one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine cytosine and guanine In RNA, uracil binds to adenine with two hydrogen bonds. In DNA, the uracil nucleobase is replaced by thymine.