A&P CH 17-19

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Which term best describes the function of blood when considering the presence of carbon dioxide and endocrine hormones?
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Terms in this set (92)
Sodium, calcium, and bicarbonate are all described as plasmaelectrolytes.One of the unhealthy effects of blood doping is toincrease the viscosity of the blood.The reason it is more appropriate to call an erythrocyte a "formed element" rather than a "cell" is that erythrocyteslack a nucleus and organelles.Which depicts the order of cell formation in erythropoiesis? a: Proerythroblast b: Normoblast c: Myeloid stem cell d: Reticulocyte e: Erythroblast f: Mature erythrocytec, a, e, b, d, fIn hemopoiesis, granulocytes such as neutrophils are formed from the _________ line.myeloidThe carbon dioxide molecules that bind to the hemoglobin molecule are attached to the __________ units.globinThe life span of an erythrocyte is about _________ days.120Congenital hemolytic anemia iswhen destruction of erythrocytes is more rapid than normal.Old erythrocytes are phagocytized in theliver and spleenThe agglutinogens (or antigens) that determine the ABO and Rh blood types arefound on the surface of erythrocytes.Which is going to result in significant agglutination?Donor is type AB, recipient is type BWhich are characteristic of leukocytes? a: Smaller than erythrocytes b: Have a nucleus c: Have no hemoglobin d: More numerous than erythrocytes e: Depending on type, may or may not contain granulesb, c, ePlatelets play a key role in _________, but if they are not used they are broken down after about ________ days.hemostasis, 9As a platelet plug forms at an injury site, platelets become activated and their cytosoldegranulates as they release chemicals such as ADP and thromboxane A2.To compensate for significant blood loss, the autonomic nervous system triggersvasoconstriction and an increase in heart rate.Fibrinolysis involves ________ of the fibrin framework, and it involves the protein _______.destruction, plasminIn young children, hemopoiesis occurs in most of their bones, but in adulthood it primarily occurs inflat bones of the axial skeleton.In many of the elderly, leukocytes appear to bedecreased in number and less efficient.When blood oxygen is _____, erythropoietin is released, which ______ production of erythrocytes.low; stimulatesThe type of leukocyte that is very active during a bacterial infection is a(n)neutrophil.Which carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart?Pulmonary veinsWhich pair is located more anteriorly in a heart in normal position?Right atrium and right ventricleThe base of the heart faces in the _____________ directions.posterior and superiorThe serous fluid within the pericardial cavity works tolubricate membranes of the pericardium.posterior interventricular sulcusis a groove between the ventricles on the back of the heart.Each of the receiving chambers of the heart has a wrinkled flaplike extension; the one that is more visible from an anterior view is theright auricle.The fossa ovalis appears just above the opening of the coronary sinus within theright atrium.Which feature permits the compression necessary to pump large volumes of blood out of the ventricles?Arrangement of cardiac muscle in the heart wallThe metabolic pathways of cardiac muscle make itsomewhat susceptible to heart attack, because it relies so exclusively on aerobic metabolism.How many half-moon shaped, pocketlike cusps are found in each semilunar valve?3As blood is pumped out of the heart and into the major arteries leaving the heart, itpushes against the semilunar valves and opens them.Typically, there are __________ papillary muscles that project from the wall of the left ventricle and attach to the tendinous cords that support the left AV valve.2An autorhythmic heart cell is one in whichaction potentials fire spontaneoulsy.At the AV node of the conduction system, the action potential isdelayed due to the cells being small and having few gap junctions.The membrane of a contractile cardiac muscle cell containscalcium pumps that move calcium out of the cell.During the plateau phase of a cardiac muscle cell's action potential, the membrane staysdepolarized as potassium exits and calcium enters.In an EKG, the P wave is generated when theatria depolarize.Someone with a heart block would havea long P-R intervalDuring ventricular contractionthe semilunar valves open and the AV valves closeBlood moves into and then out of a heart chamber becauseit moves along its pressure gradient, and that gradient depends on contraction and relaxation during the cardiac cycle.The shutting of the semilunar valves occurs during which phase?Isovolumetric relaxationCardiac reserve isthe increase in cardiac output an individual is capable of demonstrating during vigorous exercise.Large doses of certain stimulants can lead to dangerous increases in heart rates. Such a stimulant is apositive chronotropic agent.Norepinephrine is considered a positive chronotropic agent because it causesan increase in the firing rate of SA node cells.According to the Frank-Starling lawas the volume of blood entering the heart increases, ventricular contractions become more forceful.A drug that decreased calcium levels in a muscle cell and thereby lowered the number of crossbridges formed during the heart's contractions would be anegative inotropic agent.Which of the following would cause a decrease in cardiac output?An increase in afterloadSympathetic innervation of the heart a: increases the heart rate b: decreases the heart rate c: increases the force of contractions d: decreases the force of contractions e: has no effect on contraction forcea, cThe left and right coronary arteriesare functional end arteries because the blockage of one of them leads to tissue death in the area it supplies.Which vein drains the posterior aspect of the ventricles of the heart?Middle cardiac veinWhich is not characteristic of the endocrine system? A. Effects: causes metabolic activity changes in target cells B. Response time: slow reaction time = seconds to hours C. Duration of response: long-lasting = minutes to weeks D. Recovery time: rapid, immediate return to prestimulation level E. Communication method: hormones in the bloodstreamRecovery time: rapid, immediate return to prestimulation levelEndocrine glands: A. are ductless glands. B. are the organs of the endocrine system. C. secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. D. help maintain homeostasis. E. All choices are correctAll choices are correctParathyroid hormone release depends on blood levels of calcium. Such an endocrine reflex is said to be initiated byhumoral stimulation.When a chemical messenger helps initiate an inflammatory response by causing cellular changes in neighboring cells, it is demonstrating ___________ signaling.paracrineLipid-soluble hormones, such as progesterone, exert their effects by forming hormone-receptor complexes that:bind to DNA and initiate transcription.Within the adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathways of target cells, cAMP activates:protein kinase.In the signal transduction pathway that results in the formation of inositol triphosphate, the G protein directly activates:phospholipaseIntracellular signaling pathways within target cells are organized such that:each step allows for amplification of the signal where one molecule can activate many.Reduced hormone concentration in the blood often causes target cells to:up-regulate receptors in order to increase cell sensitivity.Glucagon and insulin work _________ on blood glucose levels.antagonisticallyThe part of the brain that some consider to be a "master control center" of the endocrine system is the:hypothalamusWithin the infundibulum, the axons from neurons extending into the posterior pituitary are known as the:hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.`Two regions of the hypothalamus that are associated with the posterior pituitary are the:paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus.Which lobe of the pituitary is larger and secretes more hormones?Anterior pituitaryThe hormones that come from the posterior pituitary:are synthesized in the hypothalamus and are released from the posterior pituitary when nerve signals arrive.in which order would blood flow through these structures as it travels from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland? a: Primary plexus b: Secondary plexus c: Hypophyseal portal veinsa - c - bThyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the:hypothalamus and it increases release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary.The hypothalamic hormone that triggers the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is:corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).Which is not a tropic hormone? A. Thyroid-stimulating hormone B. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone C. Adrenocorticotropic hormone D. Follicle-stimulating hormone E. ProlactinMelanocyte-stimulating hormoneWhere are the target cells for follicle-stimulating hormone?Ovaries and testesExercise causes a(n) _______ in growth hormone (GH) levels; a rise in amino acid levels or decrease in glucose levels causes a(n) ________ in GH levels.increase, increaseExcessive secretion of growth hormone in adults can cause:acromegaly.Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by the:anterior pituitary, and it targets follicular cells of the thyroid gland.You are "shadowing" an endocrinologist who is examining a patient complaining of weakness, weight loss, and heat intolerance. The doctor points out the patient's obvious exophthalmos and asks for your diagnosis. What would you speculate is the patient's problem?Hypersecretion of thyroid hormoneWhich region of the adrenal cortex synthesizes glucocorticoids?Zona fasciculataWhat is the function of the mineralocorticoids secreted by the adrenal gland?Regulate electrolyte concentration in body fluidsThe disease called ___________ is caused by excessive secretion of glucocorticoids, and is characterized by redistribution of body fat to produce the features known as "moon face" and "buffalo hump".Cushing syndromeIn most of its target cells, cortisol ________ glucose uptake and _______ protein metabolism.decreases, decreasesThe hormone that increases the rate of glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver is:glucagonWhich hormone is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas?InsulinThe metabolic condition called ___________ results from the destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas due to an autoimmune response.Type 1 diabetesInsulin causes a(n) _______ in glycogenesis in the liver and a(n) _______ in lipogenesis in adipose.increase, increase