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90 terms

Dev Psych Chpt 5, 6, 7 - First 2 years

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The average North American newborn
weighs approx 7 1/2 lbs
Compared to the first year, growth during the second year
proceeds at a slower rate
The major motor skill most likely to be mastered by an infant before the age of 6 mos is
sitting with head steady
Norms suggest that the earliest walkers in the world are infants from
Uganda
Head-sparing is the phenomenon in which
the brain continues to grow even though the body stops growing as a result of malnutrition
Dreaming is characteristic of
REM sleep
For a pediatrician, the most important factor in assessing a child's healthy growth is
the percentile rank of a child's height of weight
Brain functions that depend on babies having things to see and hear and people to feed and carry them are called
experience-expectant
Compared with formula-fed infants, breast fed infants tend to have
fewer allergies and digestive upsets
Maramus and kwashiorkor are caused by
protein-calorie deficiency
The infant's first "motor skills" are
reflexes
Which of the following is said to have had the greatest impact on human mortality reduction and population growth
childhood immunizatino
Which of the following is true of motor skill development in healthy infants
it follows the same basic sequence the world over; occurs at different rate from individual to individual; it follows norms that vary from one ethnic group to another
All the nerve cells a human brain will ever need are present
at birth
Chronically malnourished children suffer in which of the following ways
They have no body reserves to protect them, their brains may not develop normally, they may die from marsmus
Dendrite is to axon as neural ____ is to neural _____
input; output
A reflex is best defined as an
involuntary response to a given stimulus
A norm is
a standard, or average, that is derived for a specific group or population
Most babies can reach for, grasp, and hold onto an object by about the _____ month
sixth
Regarding the brain's cortex, which of the following is not true
only primates have a cortex
During the first weeks of life, babies seem to focus reasonably well on
objects at a distance of 4-30 inches
Which sleep stage increases markedly at about 3 or 4 months
slow-wave
An advantage of breast milk over forumla is that it
is always sterile and at body temperature
Synapses are
intersections between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons
Transient exuberance and pruning demonstrate that
the specifics of brain structure and growth depend partly on the infant's experience
Climbing is to using a crayon as ______ is to _______
gross motor skill; fine motor skill
Some infant reflexes are critical for survival. Hiccups and sneezes help the infant maintain the ____ and leg tucking maintains ______
oxygen supply; a constant body temp
Compared with the brains of laboratory rats that were raised in barren cages, those of rats raised in stimulating, toy-filled cages
were better developed and had more dendritic branching
In determining a healthy child's growth, a pediatrician focuses on
the child's past growth, the growth of the child's brothers and sisters, the stature of other children
Infant sensory and perceptual abilities appear to be especially organized for
comfort and social interaction
Newborns have 2 identifiable emotions
pleasure and pain
Parenting that focuses more on children's intellectual development than on their physical development is called
distal parenting
An infant's fear of being left by the mother or other care giver, called ____, is most obvious at about _____
separation anxiety; 9-14 mos
Social referencing refers to
the infant response of looking to trusted adults for emotional cues in uncertain situations
A key difference between temperament and personality is that
personality includes traits that are primarily learned
The concept of a working model is most consistent with
cognitive therapy
Freud's oral stage corresponds to Erikson's crisis of
trust vs mistrust
Erikson believed that the development of a sense of trust in early infancy depends on
consistency, continuity, and sameness of experience
Keisha is concerned that her 15-month old daughter, who no longer seems to enjoy face to face play, is showing signs of insecure attachment. You tell her
not to worry; face to face play almost disappears toward the end of the first year
"Easy", "slow to warm up" and "difficult" are descriptions of different
types of temperament
The more physical play of fathers has been described as
proximal parenting
Synchromy is a term that describes
the carefully coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant
The emotional tie that develops between an infant and his or per primary caregiver is called
attachment
Research studies using the still-face technique have demonstrated that
a parent's responsiveness to an infant aids development
Interest in people, as evidenced by the social smile, appears for the first time when an infant is _____ wks old
6
Infant-caregiver interactions that are marked by inconsistency are usually classified as
disorganized
Freud's anal stage corresponds to Erikson's crisis of
autonomy vs shame and doubt
Not until the sense of self begins to emerge do babies realize that they are seeing their own faces in the mirror. This realization usually occurs
between 15 and 24 mos
When there is goodness of fit, the parents of a slow-to-warm-up boy will
give him extra time to adjust to new situations
Emotions such as shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride emerge at the same time that
self-awareness begins to emerge
Research by the NYLS on temperamental characteristics indicates that
temperament is probably innate
In the second 6 mos, stranger wariness is a
normal emotional response
The caregivigin environment can affect a child's temperament through
the child's temperamental pattern and the demands of the home environment
While observing mothers playing with their infants in a playroom, you notice one mother who often teases her son, ignores him when he falls down, and tells him to "hush" when he cries. Mothers who display these behaviors usually have infants who exhibit which type of attachment
disorganized
The later consequences of secure attachment and insecure attachment for children are
balanced by the child's current rearing circumstances
The attachment pattern marked by anxiety and uncertainty is
insecure-resistant/ambivalent
Compared with mothers, father are more likely to
engage in noisier, more boisterous play
Like Freud, Erikson believed that
problems arising in early infancy last a lifetime
Which of the following is an example of social learning
Zach develops a hot temper after seeing his father regularly display anger and, in turn, receive respect from others
Which of the following is not true regarding synchrony
Synchrony appears to be uninfluenced by cultural differences
In general terms, the Gibsons' concept of affordances emphasizes the idea that the individual perceives an object in terms of its
function or use to the individual
According to Piaget, when a baby repeats an action that has just triggered a pleasing response from his or her caregiver, a stage ___ behavior has occurred
3
Sensorimotor intelligence begins with a baby's first
reflex actions
Piaget and the Gibsons would most likely agree that
learning and perception are active cognitive processes
By the end of the first year, infants usually learn how to
accomplish simply goals
When an infant begins to understand that objects exist even when they are out of sight, she or he has begun to understand the concept of object
permanence
Today, most cognitive psychologists view language acquisition as
determined by both biological maturation and learning
Despite cultural differences, children all over the world attain very similar language skills
in the same sequence according to a variable timetable
The average baby speaks a few words at about
12 months
A single word used by toddlers to express a complete thought is
a holophrase
A distinctive form of language, with a particular pitch, structure, etc that adults use in talking to infants is called
the LAD
Habituation studies reveal that most infants detect the difference between a pah sound and a bah sound at
1 month
The imaging technique in which the brain's magnetic properties indicate activation in various parts of the brain is called an
MRI
A toddler who taps on the computer's keyboard after observing her mother sending email the day before is demonstrating
deferred imitation
In Piaget's theory of sensorimotor intelligence, reflexes that involve the infant's own body are examples of
primary circular reactions
Stage five (12-18 mos) of sensorimotor intelligence is best described as
the period of the "little scientist"
Which of the following is not evidence of dynamic perception during infancy
Babies quickly grasp that even though objects look different when seen from different viewpoints, they are the same objects
Research suggests that the concept of object permanence
may occur earlier and more gradually than Piaget recognized
Which of the following is an example of a secondary circular reaction
realizing that rattles make noise, a 4 month old infant laughs with delight when his mother puts a rattle in his hand
18 mo old Colin puts a collar on his stuffed dog, then pretends to take it for a walk. Colin's behavior is an example of a
tertiary circular reaction
According to Piaget, the use of deferred imitation is an example of stage ___ behavior
6
For Noam Chomsky, the language acquisition device refers to
the human disposition to acquire language
The first stage of sensorimotor intelligence lasts until
infants begin to adapt their reflexes to the environment
Whether or not an infant perceives certain characeristics of objects, such as "suckability" or "graspability" seems to depend on
his or her prior experiences; his or her needs; his or her sensory awareness
Piaget was incorrect in his belief that infants do not have
object permanence
The purposeful actions that begin to develop in sensorimotor stage four are called
goal-directed behaviors
What is the correct sequence of stages of language development
crying, cooing, babbling, first word
Compared with hearing babies, deaf babies
begin to babble manually at about the same age as hearing babies begin to babble vocally
According to Skinner, children acquire language
through reinforcement and other aspects of conditioning
A fundamental idea of the emergentist coalition model of language acquisition is that
some aspects of language are best learned in one way at one age, others in another way at another age