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Ch 1 Intro to Histology and its Methods
Terms in this set (59)
Prof played football with
Prof's wife name
Prof's children's name
Amanda, John, Eric
Researchers have found that ______________ of U.S. men and women are chronic procrastinators. They delay at home, work, school and in relationships.
Research has found some links with chronic procrastination and personality challenges like
ADHD, passive-aggressive tendencies, revenge, obsessive-compulsive disorder.
For those chronic procrastinators, it is not a time management issue - it is a
Procrastination is not waiting, and it is more than delaying. It is a decision to
The answer to correcting procrastination is establishing
motivation and changing our Will to complete the task.
the study of tissue biology with the emphasis on how cell structure optimizes cell and tissue function in regards to each organ and organ system
Why should we study histology?
1. It is the prelude to and absolute prerequisite for the study of pathology
2. Underlying fabric of form and function for all biological processes in health and disease
3. It provides scaffolding of cells and tissues upon which to construct the principles of basic science
4. critical thinking skills
5. develop skills for diagnosing
6. better observer of life
students' observational skills could be improved by at least 10% when they participated in a course that examined and analyzed
preselected works of art
Hyaloid canal (Cloquet's canal or Stilling's canal) is a small transparent canal running through the vitreous body from the
optic nerve disc to the lens.
In the fetus, the hyaloid canal contains a
prolongation of the central artery of the retina, the hyaloid artery, which supplies blood to the developing lens.
At birth, or soon thereafter, the hyaloid artery and associated vascular tree close, and their remnants are thought to be
reabsorbed over time; falling along the inferior surface of the lens and becoming "inconsequential" in the eye.
In the mature eye, remnants of CC are evident in some eyes as
Mittendorf's dot posterior to the lens and Bergmeister's papilla anterior to the optic nerve head (ONH), with persistence of Bergmeister's papilla sufficiently common as to be considered an anatomic variant.
The finding of persistence of CC in 93% of healthy eyes demonstrates that the remnant of the hyaloid artery and its associated structures
do not disappear completely in the majority of eyes.
Mittendorf's dot is a small circular opacity on the posterior lens capsule, classically nasal in location, which represents the
anterior attachment of the hyaloid artery. Whitish spot at posterior lens surface
The hyaloid artery is present during gestation and typically
Failure of the hyaloid artery to regress can lead to
benign findings, such as Mittendorf's dot or a Bergmeisters papilla, or pathologic changes as seen in persistant fetal vasculature syndrome
Persistent Fetal Vasculature Syndrome (PFVS), also known as
persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV)
Persistant Fetal Vasculature syndrome or persistant hyperplastic primary vitreous
a congenital development disorder that occurs when the hyaloid canal present during the development of the eye fails to whether, or regress as they should. Structure abnormalities may lead to impairment of vision
The spectrum of eye conditions in PFVS is broad, and often become apparent at
birth or shortly thereafter.
Symptoms of PFVS
crossed eyes, abnormal eye movements, and lazy eye
Eyes with PFV are often smaller than normal and commonly only
one eye is affected—although there are instances in which the eyes are normal in size, or where both eyes are smaller than normal
abnormal eye movements
Optic nerve atrophy causes
an inflammation of the optic nerve caused by multiple sclerosis
caused by infection (meningitis or brain trauma)
optic disk swelling due to increased intracranial pressure
bright field microscopy
most common and occurs as you view tissue through ordinary light
When viewing the tissue the orientation from viewing the tissue with the naked eye vs viewing the tissue through the microscope is
upside down and reverse.
the smallest distance between two particles at which they can be seen as separate objects
For a light microscope the resolving power is
0.2 micrometers. structures smaller than this like ribosomes, membranes and filaments can not be seen
The condenser collects and focuses light, producing a
cone of light that illuminates the tissue slide on the stage.
Objective lenses enlarge and project
the illuminated image of the object in the direction of the eyepiece
tissues are irradiated with UV light and the emission is in the visible portion of the spectrum but a longer wavelength which appears brilliant on a dark background. has special filteres that select rays of different wavelengths
phase contrast microscopy
-used to examined unstained cells and tissue. It uses a lens system that produces visible images from transparent objects
-This process works based on the principle that light changes its speed when passing through cellular and extracellular structures with different refractive indices. The Phase contrast microscope used different filtering rings to remove background light. This causes the cell or tissue substances to appear lighter or darker in comparison.
differential interference microscopy
used in cell culture labs and makes 3d image by Nomanski Differential interference microscopy converts Phase contrast microscopy
Although a very small spot of light originating from one plane of the section crosses the pinhole and reaches the detector, rays originating from other planes are blocked by the blind. Thus, only one very thin plane of the specimen is focused at a time. This avoids stray light and greatly improves resolution of the object in focus.
Most abundant, versatile, and highly branched glial cells
Cling to neurons, synaptic endings, and cover capillaries
Support and brace neurons
Play role in exchanges between capillaries and neurons
Guide migration of young neurons
Control chemical environment around neurons
bright light microscopy
less than 20. fast for thin tissue
spinning disc confocal microscopy
less than 20. fast living tissue
slow when used on thick tissue
multiphoton excited confocal microscopy
good for thick tissue >100
Polarizing light microscopy allows for visualization of
highly organized molecules such as crystals, cellulose, collagen, microtubules and microfilaments.
Polarizing light microscopy produces an image only of material having repetitive, periodic macromolecular structure; features without such structure are not seen. It does this through a two Polaroid filter system. The first filter causes light to
vibrate in one direction, the second filter orientated perpendicular to the first blocks the light. Repetitive organized tissues mentioned above cause the light to rotate through a polarizer and become visible.
Polarized light microscopy used to detect
uric acid crystals of gout
Gout risk factors
obesity, diabetes, alcohol use
over production of uric acid
treat with allopurinol
under secretion of uric acid
treat with probenicid
active attack of uric acid
treat with cochicine
fat yellow tumor
Electron microscopy usually require
freezing tissue processing so blade can cut tissue very thin
Both are based on the interaction of electrons and tissue components. The electron beam wavelength is much
shorter than light and therefore can increase the resolution a thousand-fold compared to light.
Transmission electron microscopy
areas of the specimen through which electrons passed appear bright (electron lucent), while those areas which are naturally dense or which bind heavy metals during specimen preparation or "staining" absorb or deflect electrons and appear dark (electron dense).
SEM (scanning electron microscope)
shows only surface views of the coated specimen but with a striking 3D quality . the inside of organs or cells can be analyzed by sectioning them to expose internal surfaces
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