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History Quiz

Terms in this set (13)

paymaster and a security guard are killed during a mid-afternoon armed robbery of a shoe company in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Out of this rather unremarkable crime grew one of the most famous trials in American history and a landmark case in forensic crime detection.
Both Fred Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli were shot several times as they attempted to move the payroll boxes of their New England shoe company. The two armed thieves, identified by witnesses as "Italian-looking," fled in a Buick. The car was found abandoned in the woods several days later. Through evidence found in the car, police suspected that a man named Mike Boda was involved. However, Boda was one step ahead of the authorities, and he fled to Italy.
Police did manage to catch Boda's colleagues, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, who were each carrying loaded weapons at the time of their arrest. Sacco had a .32 caliber handgun--the same type as was used to kill the security guards--and bullets from the same manufacturer as those recovered from the shooting. Vanzetti was identified as a participant in a previous robbery attempt of a different shoe company.
Sacco and Vanzetti were anarchists, believing that social justice would come only through the destruction of governments. In the early 1920s, mainstream America developed a fear of communism and radical politics that resulted in a anti-communist, anti-immigrant hysteria. Sacco and Vanzetti, recognizing the uphill battle ahead, tried to put this fear to their advantage by drumming up support from the left wing with claims that the prosecution was politically motivated. Millions of dollars were raised for their defense by the radical left around the world. The American embassy in Paris was even bombed in response to the Sacco-Vanzetti case; a second bomb intended for the embassy in Lisbon was intercepted.
The well-funded defense put up a good fight, bringing forth nearly 100 witnesses to testify on the defendants' behalf. Ultimately, eyewitness identification wasn't the crucial issue; rather, it was the ballistics tests on the murder weapon. Prosecution experts, with rather primitive instruments, testified that Sacco's gun was the murder weapon. Defense experts claimed just the opposite. In the end, on July 14, 1921, Sacco and Vanzetti were found guilty; they were sentenced to death.
However, the ballistics issue refused to go away as Sacco and Vanzetti waited on death row. In addition, a jailhouse confession by another criminal fueled the controversy. In 1927, Massachusetts Governor A. T. Fuller ordered another inquiry to advise him on the clemency request of the two anarchists. In the meantime, there had been many scientific advances in the field of forensics. The comparison microscope was now available for new ballistics tests and proved beyond a doubt that Sacco's gun was indeed the murder weapon.
Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in August 1927, but even the new evidence didn't completely quell the controversy. In October 1961, and again in March 1983, new investigations were conducted into the matter, but both revealed that Sacco's revolver was indeed the one that fired the bullet and killed the security guards. On August 23, 1977, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis issued a proclamation that Sacco and Vanzetti had not received a fair trial.
What did the Eighteenth Amendment do? The 18th amendment made the sale/consumption of alcohol illegal (prohibition).
What were Speak-easies? Speak-easies were places where liquor was sold behind closed doors.
What were the three types of boundaries that were shattered in the Twenties? Technological, geographical, and social boundaries were shattered.
In 1920, more Americans lived in _____urban centers____ than _country towns/villages____.
The number of millionaires in America in the Twenties jumped by __400___%.
Where was the capital of Jazz? Harlem
Name the leaders of the Jazz movement. Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, and Edward Kennedy.
What was the Harlem Renaissance? The Harlem Renaissance was the promise land for black Americans, people were proud to be black.
What was life like on the lower east side of New York City in the Twenties? Settled by european immigrants who worked low wage jobs.
What was life like in the rural areas in the early Twenties? People in the rural areas lived how their parents and grandparents had, and they liked it that way. It was an easy life, and much more calm.
How did electricity change people's lives in the Twenties? Provide at least two examples. Electric lights opened new possibilities for work/play, and cars.
How did the car change people's lives in the Twenties? The car gave Americans a sense of freedom, to escape town, go on vacation, etc.
How did advertising change the way people paid for their goods? Big, colorful, signs were everywhere, and the brand new consumer concept, debt, began.
This became the order of the day in the Twenties, "Buy now, ____pay later_______."
What was the most popular item to buy in the Twenties? the radio.
What kinds of things did women do in the Twenties that they had not done before? There was an expanding job market, disposable income, and a newfound freedom/independence. The 19th amendment is the best example of this freedom.
Describe a flapper. How did a vamp differ from a flapper? a flapper was not afraid to take risks, but had limits, and a vamp was even more daring with few limits.
What was the underlying issue in the Scopes Trial in Tennessee? teaching Darwinism was illegal in Tennessee.
What was the outcome of the trial? Scopes was found guilty and given a fine of 100$. This was eventually overturned.
Membership in the Ku Klux Klan skyrocketed to __4 million___ in the Twenties.
How many KKK members marched on Washington D.C.? 50,000 members.
What great aerial feat did Charles Lindbergh make in the Twenties? Lindbergh made the flight from NYC to Paris.
What did his flight represent? best of the hero, mastery of modern tech, technological growth.
What happened on October 29, 1929? the stock market crashed.
What was the value in paper that disappeared from the stock market that day? 30 billion dollars were lost.
How did the crash impact Americans? Everyone lost all their money, no social security, people jumped off the George Washington bridge. Everyone had to start over, which was not easy.
1. In what ways is the automobile a sign of industrial improvements in the 1920s? Henry Ford introduced many technological and management innovations to his automobile business. His methods/ideas revolutionized production, wages, working conditions, and daily life. He also brought mass production to a new level.
2. How did the popularity of the automobile change life in the United States? The popularity of the automobile changed life in the US because as the car industry boomed, there was increasing employment, and increasing tax revenues. This turned into highways being created, the construction of roads, etc.
3. What was the consumer revolution and why was it important? The consumer revolution was a flood of new affordable goods in the decades after WW1. The consumer revolution allowed the widespread availability of electrical power, which included electric washing machines, vacuums cleaners, irons, and contributed to radio/refrigerator sales.
4. What were the policies of the Warren G. Harding Administration toward big business? Warren G. Harding favored conservative policies that helped the growth of businesses, rather than pursuing reform like the Progressives did. He ended up raising the protective tariff rates about 25%.
5. What scandals did Harding face during his presidency? During his presidency, Harding faced the Teapot Dome scandal, when the interior secretary leased government oil reserves to private oilmen for bribes. He did not live to see the full Teapot Dome scandal, as he died on August 2.
6. How was the conflict between traditionalism and modernism reflected in the Scopes Trial of 1925? The conflict between traditionalism and modernism reflected in the Scope trial because the Teapot Scandal made US citizens begin to doubt the federal government. People started to believe that the government, especially the Executive Branch, was dishonest and corrupt.
7. How was the second Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s different from the first? What techniques did the Klan use to spread its ideology? The second Klu Klux Klan of the 1920s was different from the first because it not only promoted hatred for African Americans, but it also focused on new America (it targeted Jews, Catholics, and immigrants). They were very harsh, and targeted people at night, burned crosses outside their homes, boycotted businesses owned by anyone who was Jewish, Catholic, African American or an immigrant, etc.
8. What were the effects of Prohibition on the United States? Effects of prohibition in the US were illegal sale/consumption of alcohol, people smuggling it from other countries, growth of organized crime in America, etc.
9. Why did movies and radio become so popular in the 1920s? Movies and radios become so popular because Americans had more free time and were looking for entertainment. Silent pictures were perfect for immigrants that did not speak much english.
10. How did the new leisure activities build a national culture? New leisure activities such as movies, music, and sports built a national culture. The phonograph and radio also played a big role in building a national culture, as they also helped to create a standardized culture.