Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
PSY 411 Test 1
Terms in this set (94)
a formal and long paper, written for a degree at a university or college
- not peer-reviewed like articles are
A sum of money given by a certain organization, especially the government, for a certain reason or cause
- money transferring from a group to another group
a person to whom a grant or conveyance is made.
Request for Proposal
- the proposal explains what the money is going to be used for
creates wealth and growth
grows the human condition
Public affairs case
it is right and good for our community
moral and legal concept expressing the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia,
- independence to pursue truth, including significant and controversial topics
a multiplicity of ideas.
What are the 3 problems of utility of free expression/ free communication?
1. The right opinion is suppressed
2. The wrong opinion is suppressed
3. If partly true and partly false opinion is suppressed
has a specific destination
prepares us for destinations that have yet to be determined
A comparison without using like or as
- compare tow objects as if they are similar but actually very different
- "Red bull gives you wings"
communication is framed using what?
communication is what?
What did the Pace article talk about?
Information collected from face to face interviews
- Chi-square was used for analysis
- Overall impression of communication skill has a high significant
- Beauty, style, popularity are called emotional elements
painting a verbal picture for customers in an attempt to help them see themselves enjoying the benefits of the product for sale
Oral communication can differentiating what between what?
reliable criterion for differentiating superior from inferior salespeople
Reliable cumulative knowledge requires what?
meta-analysis for multiple replications
the same researcher conducts a new study in exactly the same way as in the original study;
a different researcher attempts to duplicate the original study using exactly the same procedures (also called direct replication);
a different researcher conducts a study in which many features of the original study are maintained but some aspects
What has research in meta-analysis shown?
that no single study can answer any question
error in a statistical analysis arising from the unrepresentativeness of the sample taken.the difference between the results of random samples taken at the same time
the social cognitive process involved in assuming the perspective of others and understanding their thoughts and feelings
- involved in empathy
the ability to understand and share the feelings of another
- to experience the other's world as if it were your own, without ever losing the as if quality
We should not mistake perspective-taking for what?
we should not mistake it for relativism which is a weak shortcut
an approach to epistemology holding that all knowledge of matters of fact either arises from experience or requires experience for its validation ... building ideas on specific evidence
- the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience
- Draft on thesis statement and evidence for or evidence against (A VERY LARGE T)
- You should be equally open to all forms of evidence
inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior
- explanation for other's behavior
If everything is equal what kind of attribution do we tend to make?
the presence of difference
- we are interested in the variance (gender, race, weight, sexual orientation, age, ability, religion)
What are the three models of diversity?
promotes recognition and preservation of social differences
Melting Pot Theory
American culture is a blend of many different cultures
- social differences are blended into a harmonious whole
individual merits are considered, and social differences are ignored
- social differences are purposely ignored
the defense of human dignity by ensuring that essential human needs are met and that essential human rights are protected for all people
APA and APS emphasize what?
the role of psychology in promoting human welfare
- Being considered about social justice is built into the profession
social difference is what?
- earlobe example
- His mother said that the nuns didn't want Irish girls dating Italian boys
the tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave
what are the two parts of knowing two selves?
empathy and genuineness
being honest, direct, not using a facade
- being one's self, being human, being immediate, and being a collaborator
what are the basic attending skills?
eye contact, body language, vocal qualities, and verbal tracking
what does eye contact demonstrate?
vocal qualities is used for what?
emphasizing different parts of the sentence
Attending behavior (attentive) that is verbal
- reflect back to what the speaker said to us
why is it important to self-disclose your difference?
- Express interest in learning the other viewpoint and how the person arrived there (empathy)
three pillars of MSU
the science of psychology was initially what?
a lab science
history of psychology
- During/After WWII: increased professional activity
- 1947: first APA committee on ethical standards for psychologists
- 1953: first code published
- Eleven revisions across six decades
APA Code Principles
Beneficence and nonmaleficence
- Fidelity and responsibility
- Justice: we must be considered for justice and cultivate respect for people's rights
social identity theory
theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
Social Categorization Theory
Similarity leads to liking and attraction
- thinking about people as members of social groups rather than individuals (an automatic process, a great way to supress data)
creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of the group are alike
- nurturing a set of beliefs about the members of a social group
- Placing people into social categories makes the world a simpler place but their is a tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency
people prefer attractive features as it can show how athletic they are... individuals are motivated to engage in behaviors that maximize their genetic fitness.
what are other social categories?
- Culturally determined
- Driven by salience
- Related to threat
people use what to fill in any gaps in memory?
use their schema and can cause memories to be biased
people who share our perceived qualities in our social category
outgroup homogeneity effect
the tendency to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members
- We forgive in-group leaders and condemn out-group leader for the same transgressions
Just World Theory
a model proposing that humans need to believe that the world is a fair place where people generally get what they deserve
- preserves my sense of safety
- helps us manage anxiety
- may contribute to a sterotype
knowledge of victim suffering - either current or past - increases rather than decreases prejudice toward members of that group
- worldview violation
mark of disgrace
actual identity - virtual identity = bias
the extreme disapproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the rest of society
ex. mental illness has been stigmatized in american society
- social feedback can build actual identity
the principle that irrelevant detail should be cut away
- we try to stay close to data we have
Golden Mean Fallacy
This logical error involves assuming that the most valid conclusion to reach is a compromise of two competing positions.
- Simply identifies the middle of opposing views as best
what was found when looking at male pattern baldness?
people generally assume that persons who are physically attractive are also socially attractive, that is, have socially desirable traits such as gregariousness and cheerfulness ("what is beautiful is good and what is ugly is bad").
- physical apperance is an essential factor
preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience
- unjustified negative judgement
- Automotive (Socialization)
Our family, our culture
- Controlled (chosen)
terror management theory
we form relationships and build worldviews to combat the terror of death and insignificance
- beautiful pictures of someone on their obituary
prejudice that is expressed in disguised fashion
- people that are experiencing prejudices deny experiencing prejudice and express a different symbolic prejudice, a stand-in, a proxy
- You claim to not have a prejudice but sympathize with female co-workers
- "I don't have anything against group X, but then I express it in an indirect way
someone learns about the harm/ prejudice that a secondary group is experiencing is likely to increase their prejudice
the big 5 personality types: what two have been associated with prejudice?
low openness and low agreeable
What happened in 1947?
- 1947: first APA committee on ethical standards for psychologists
What happened in 1953?
- 1953: first code published
Explain the article by Frank Schmidt on the crisis of confidence in research findings?
many people worried that research studies are not repeated or replicated to ensure the results are real
- used an empirical study and quantitative study
- attainment of reliable cumulative knowledge requires meta-analysis
- failure to replicate is assumed to constitute important scientific evidence
Define the article of Helen Neville on why racial color-blindness is myopic
While the United States has made many advances in race relations over the past 150 years, racial inequality persists in all sectors of American life and many people want to do the right thing by abhor racism
- ignoring their race and not talking about it will not help end disparities
- acknowledging race and racism promotes racial justice and humaist principles
what does CBRI stand for?
color-blind racial ideology
According to Helen Neville was is the defintion of color-blind racial ideology?
a new powerful ideology that has emerged to defend the contemporary racial order
- when scholars study a topic their definition is rarely what "most Americans consider the definition
According to Helen Neville article what did Martin Lurter King mean in his speech?
he never intended for individuals to ignore racial realities
- we are moving away from the society that created segration but we have yet to radically transform the society
Why did Helena Neville say that words are important in her article?
words define, explain, and interpret the social world
- there are a numbers of ways in which people use language to deny, distort, or minimize the racial realities of people of color
What was the title of the article from the authors of Nida Denson, Nicholos Bowman, Georgia Ovenden, K.C Culver, and Joshua Holmes?
Do diversity courses improve college student outcomes?
What does the article from Denson, Bownman, Ovenden, Culver, and Holmes discuss?
the racial tensions and racial politics of the nation are also reflected at colleges and universities
- offenses associated with racial bias were the most common and accounted for 40% of all hate crimes on college campuses
- The majority of the studies reported standardized betas
What did the article from Denson, Bownman, Overden, Culver, and Holmes conclude?
When exploring descriptive statistics for the 355 unweighted effect sizes there is an overall positive relationship between diversity courses and student outcomes (M = .081
What did the article of Zara Adams cover?
the ethical guidelines for the COVID-19 era
- telepsychology session
- discuss the risks and benefits of providing services through videoconferencing
- encourage clients to prioritize privacy
- important to dress up from work, regular hours, and staying in role.
- be cautious if you are in an experiment with someone who can get sick easily
During the article by Zara Adams what should instructors be aware of?
social justice issues around the shift to online instruction
- provide captions if one has a disability
According to Zara Adams what should forensic psychologists consider?
Forensic psychologists conducting child custody evaluations must weigh the competing demands of court deadlines and rules, the standards laid out in the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, and the risks and benefits of interviewing parents and children in person versus remotely
What does the article composed by Rhodes, Leslie, Bianchi, and Chalik discuss?
the role of generic language in the early development of social categorization
- Experimental studies (N = 129) with 2‐year‐olds showed that generic language—language that refers to abstract kinds—guides the development of social categorization.
According to Rhodes, Leslie, Bianchi, and Chalik what should be recognize?
markers of social categories with a high level of specificity (e.g., to realize that a type of scarf denotes a category; but the color of a person's shoes does not) and in a manner particular to their cultural environment.
- The criteria that define social categories (e.g., race, religion, social class) and the qualities that mark memberships (e.g., clothing, physical features, accents, behaviors) are both highly variable across contexts
Language is a key form of input that guides the development of categorization
The use of nouns to label nonsocial categories (e.g., artifacts and animals) triggers infants as young as 3 months to search for commonalities among members of a class, facilitating category acquisition
- found that 4‐year‐olds used social categories based on race and gender to infer individual preferences when the categories were marked by labels but not otherwise.
According to Rhodes, Leslie, Bianchi, and Chalik what does generic language refer to?
refers to abstract coherent kinds, instead of the specific individuals or subsets
- Increased age was associated with increased likelihood of selecting category matches following exposure to specific language
What does the article by Maner, Miller, Moss, Leo, and Plant talk about?
Motivated social categorization: Fundamental motives enhance people's sensitivity to basic social categories.
what does the article Motivated social categorization: Fundamental motives enhance people's sensitivity to basic social categories. talk about?
the framework helps identify specific categories of social stimuli likely to be preferentially processed when particular goals are active
- perceivers regularly place others into categories
Social categorization plays a foundational role in what?
virtually all downstream forms of social cognition; the information individuals use to categorize others plays a key role in what information those individuals later remember, how they evaluate others, and how they respond to other people's behavior
What does the article by Maner, Miller, Moss, Leo, and Plant state about voluntary motivation?
Theories of good genes sexual selection imply that people prefer physically attractive sexual partners in part because attractive features reflect potential signs of high genetic fitness
- men prefer attractive women in part because attractive physical features can signal a woman's high level of health and fertility
According to Wigboldus and Dijksterhuis what do people use to categorize someone?
Gender, age, and skin color, for instance, are salient features that perceivers use to rapidly categorize a person
when does STI's occur?
"when attending to another person's behavior produces a trait inference in the absence of our explicit intention to infer traits or form an impression of that person"
Other sets by this creator
PSY 411 Test 3
PSY 411 test 2
PSY 505 Test 1
Other Quizlet sets
EMT CH. 4 Communications & Documentations
CH.4 CELL STRUCTURE ❕
Ch.14.3 - The Russian Revolution
FFA Career Development Test Study Guide