113 terms

American History 2nd Semester

At the end of the Civil War, many white southerners still believed that:
their view of secession was correct and their cause was just
The greatest achievements of the Freedmen's bureau was:
in education
The white south viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as:
a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance
In President Andrew Johnsons view, the Freedmen's bureau
was a meddlesome agency that should be killed
In his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised
rapid readmission of Southern stared into the Union
Congressional Republicans believed
that the Southern states had completely left the Union and conuered provencies that had to seek readmission on whatever terms...
Pres Johnsons plan for reconstruction
aimed at a swift restoratioin of the southern states after a few basic conditions were met
The incident that caused the clash between Congress and President Johnson to explode into the passage of Johnson's veto of the bill extended
the Freedmen's Bureau.
In the postwar South
the economy and social structure was utterly devastated
Freedom for Southern blacks at the end of the Civil War
came haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered Confederacy
The 14th Amendment
guaranteed citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves and prohibited ex-confederate leaders from holding public office
Johnson's veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 prompted Congress
to seek passage of articles of impeachment against Johnson
In the 1866 congressional elections, voters
endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction
Both moderate and radical Republicans agreed that
freed slaves must be granted the right to vote
The last of the Reconstruction era amendments to pass was
the Fifteenth
A primary motive for the formation of the KKK was
white resentment of the ability and success of black legislatures
Johnson was narrowly acquitted on the impeachment charges because
it was finally recognized that the charges were dubious and political
All of the following reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Johnson except
Johnson promised to step down as president
Reconstruction might have been successful if
steven's radical program had been enacted
Reconstruction involved extended controversies over
readmission of Southern States into the Union, Civil and Political Rights for former slaves, direction and control of reconstruction, treatment of Confederate leaders
The greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network was that it
united the nation into a single, integrated national market
Efforts to regulated the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of
action by state legislatures
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scae attempt by the federal government to regulate business
One of the methods by which post- Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
elimination of as much competition as possible
Andrew Carnegie
John D. Rockefeller
J. Pierpont Morgan
Vertical integration
interlocking dectorate
The vast, integrated continental US market greatly enhanced the American inclination toward
Interstate Commerce Commission
the organization technique with vertical integration within a single company was started by
Carnegie with the Steel Industry
the organization technique with vertical integration within a single company was started by
US steel
The gospel of wealth endorsed by Andrew Carnegie
The wealth should display moral responsibility in the use of God-Given money
Believers in the "survival of the fittest," like Spencer and Sumner believed that
The wealthy deserved riches because they demonstrated greater ability than the poor
to help corporations, courts interpreted the 14th amendment which was designed to protect rights of ex-slaves, so as to
avoid corporation regulation by the states
The ____ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporation when defending themselves against regulation by state government.
The Sherman Anti-Trust act prohibited
private corporations or organizations from engaging in "combination" or restraints or trade
During the age of industrialization, the South
remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural
Which one is least like the other four (yellow dog contract, lockout, blacklist, company, closed shop)
closed shop
Generally the Supreme court in the late 19th century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor
Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when
labor would own and operate business and industries
The most effective and enduring Labor Union of the post Civil War period was the
AF of L
a major factor in the shift in US foreign policy toward imperialism in the late 19th century was
need for overseas market
The new immigrants who came to the US after 1880
were culturally different from previous immigrants
Most new immigrants tried
to preserve their Old Country culture in America
New Immigrant groups were regarded with special hostility by many nativist Americans because
their religions were distinctly different and some New Immigrants were politically radical
A major factor in the shift in the American foreign policy toward imperialism was
the need for overseas markets for increased industrial and agricultural production
Alfred Thayer Mahan argued that
control of the sea was key to world domination
To justify involvement in Venezuelan boundary dispute with Britian, Olney invoked the
Monroe doctrine
The Cuban insurrectos who wanted to overthrow Spanish rule in Cuba
adopted a scorched earth policy
US favored providing aid to cuban revolutionaries for all except
national security threat
The battleship Maine was sunk by
an accidental internal explosion
President McKinley asked congress to declare war on spain becaue
American public and many leading republicans demanded it
The Teller Amendment
guaranteed the US would support cuban independence
A major weakness of Spain in the Spanish American war was its
The Philippine nationalist who led the insurrection against both Spanish rule and later the US occupation
Emilio Aguinaldo
All the following were posessions of the US included in the treaty of Paris with Spain except
President McKinley justified US acquisition of the Philippines by emphasizing that
there was no acceptable alternative to their acquisition
Progressivism was closely tied to
the feminist movement and women's causes
American Imperialists who advocated acquisition of the Philippines especially stressed
economic potential for american business men seeking trade with China and the Asians
The real heart of the progressive movement was the effort by reformers to
use the government as an agency to human welfare
David G. Philips
Ida Tarbell
Lincoln Stephens
Ray Stannard Baker
US senate
Standard Oil Company
City Governments
Condition of blacks
Most muckrakers believed their primary function in the progressive attack on social ills was
to make the public aware of social problems
Political progressivism
emerged in both parties in all regions at all levels of the government
The 17th amendment was designed to
make the Senate millionaire's club directly elected by the people
To regain the power people had lost to the interests, progressives advocated all except
Settlement houses and women's club movements were crucial centers of female progressive activity because they
introduced many middle class women to...array of urban..
In muller v oregon, the supreme court upheld the principle promoted by progressivists like Florence Kelley and Louis Brandeis
Female workers required special rules and protections on the job
Lochner v New york represented a setback for progressives and the labor advocates because in its rulings, the supreme court
declared law limiting work to 10 hours a day unconstitutional
Teddy Roosevel believed that large corporate trusts
were bad only if they acted as monopilies against the public interest
Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, he inteded the book to focus on
plight of the workers in the stockyards and meat-packing industry
The passage of the Federal Meat Inspection act was made possible by
The jungle
The 16th amendment
premitted congress to enact a personal income tax
President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with German when
Germany announced it would launch unrestricted sub warefare
Zimmerman note involved a secret agreement between
mexico and germany
the us declared war on germany when
u boats sank us boats
wilson persuaded us people to enter wwi by saying that we had to
make the world safe for democracy
wilson viewd the us entry in wwi as an opportunity for the us to
shape a new international order to spread democracy
which was not among the 14 points
freedom of religion
when the us entered wwi it was
poorly prepared
durring wwi civil liberties in the us were
severely damaged by pressures for loyalty and conformity
2 constitutional amendments adopted in part of wwi, were the 18th, which dealt with_____. and the 19 which was____
prohibition, women's suffrage
most wartime mobilization agencies relied on ______to prepare the US for war
voluntary compliance
most of the $ raised to finance WWI came from
loans from the american public
for german military strategists, the us entry into the war meant that
they would have to defeat france and britain before americans came
russias withdrawal from wwi in 1918 resulted in
the release of hundreds of thousands of german troops to france
the military commander of the us during wwi was
john j pershing
the 2nd battle of the marne was significant because it
marked the beginning of german withdrawal that was never reversed
Germans were heavily demoralized by
US troop reserves
The chief difference between wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the paris peace table was that wilson
did not have legislative majority at home
at the Paris peace treaty conference, wilson sought all of the following except
end to european colonial empires in africa and asia
opposition to the LON by many US senators during the Paris Peace conference
gave allied leaders in paris a stronger bargaining position
in the us, the most controversial aspect of the treaty of versailles was the
Senate oppinents of the LON proposed the treaty of Versailles, argued that it
robbed congress of war declaring powers
The Kellogg-briand pact
outlawed war as a solution to rivalry and conflict
The Fordney-McCumber and Hawley-Smoot Tariff (anyone...anyone...anyone...haha DA) laws had the long term effect of
shrinking international trade and impossible for Europe to repay America
US european allies argued that they should not have to repay US loans because
much heavier price in lost lives so it was only fair for US to write off debt
The Phrase 100 days refers to the
the flood of legislation passed by congress in the first months of FDRs presidency
The agricultural adjustment act proposed to solve the farm problem by
reducing agricultural production
both ratified in the 1930s, the 20th amendmant ______ and the 21st amendment ______
20th - short time between election and inauguration 21st - ended prohibition
1932, FDR campaigned he would attack the great depression by
bold new programs for economic and social reform
JFK's most bitter confrontation with big business occurred
forced steel industry to roll back steel price increase
the bays of pigs invasion failed when
the anti-castro exiles were defeated
When USSR installed nuclear weapons in Cuba, JFK ordered
naval quarantine of the island
the cuban missle crisis resulted in all of the following except
the us agreement to abandon guantanamo
1963 March on Washington led by Martin Luther King Jr. provided critical support for
Civil rights bill to end segregation
Lyndon B. Johnson called his package of domestic reform
the Great society
The landmark of Civil Rights act of 1964
requiring affirmative action against discrimination
The crucial origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the US and Soviet Union over postwar arrangements in
eastern europe
when the soviet union dedied us, great britain, and france access to berlin in 1948, Truman responded by
organizing an airlift to berlin
under the truman doctrine, the us pledged to
support those who were resisting communists
Marshall plan called for
substantial financial aid to rebuild western europe
President Truman's action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea illustrated his commitment to a foreign policy of
The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was:
related to the threat of a communist takeover in Greece and Turkey
How did Soviet Specialist George F Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War?
by advising a policy of containment
The fundamental idea of President Truman's and George Kennan's containment doctrine was:
Soviet expansion should be blocked by firm but not aggressive military and diplomatic strength
Under the Truman Doctrine, the US pledged:
to support those who were resisting subjugation by communist