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Microbiology Exam 1
Terms in this set (166)
The study of microbes
A living organism that requires a microscope to be seen
For 2 billion years, the only form of life was _______________
Over time, microbes have evolved and become more _________________
Over time, microbes have evolved and become more complex, into ____________________ organisms
Some "microbes" aren't _______________
Some microscopic animals aren't _______________
we have _____ times as many bacterial cells as human cells in an individual
less than one
_____________________% of known bacterial species cause illness in humans
Microbes can cause disease, but not every microbe causes ________________
Microbial cells may be _________________ or ___________________
___________________ cells do not have a nucleus
Prokaryotic cells include ________________ & __________________
In a ______________ cell, the DNA has no membrane surrounding it
what cells have a true nucleus?
bacteria is _________________ to humans
What type of microbe can live in extreme environments such as hot springs and the Arctic sea?
will archaea cause disease in humans?
________________ can be square shaped
Fungi and protists get their energy from _________
Algae get their energy from ___________
________________ are the smallest microbe, at about 4-100nm
viruses are non-_________ and non-_____________
Viruses __________________ (can/can't) take part in independent reproduction
Yes, but it is not always DNA
Do viruses have genetic material?
in 10,000 BCE, humans were using microbes for ________________
in 1300-1400 BCE, the _______________ killed 17 million people in Europe
In 50 BCE, _____________ helped the Romans mine for copper
Who developed the first compound microscope strong enough to see cells?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Who was the first to observe single-celled microbes (bacteria)?
Leeuwenhoek's microscope design allowed him to be able to observe ____________ bacteria
Leeuwenhoek called the bacteria he saw what?
Who proved that bacteria were living things capable of reproducing and potentially acting as a cause of disease?
Lewis Pasteur was able to disprove the theory of _____________________
before 1850, theories on diseases did not include ____________
Pasteur & Koch
Who provided evidence for the Germ Theory of Disease in the mid 1800s?
Pasteur & Koch provided evidence that linked disease & _______________
What type of bacteria did Koch isolate?
Florence Nightingale founded what?
Florence Nightingale discovered what?
Germ Theory of Disease
Specific diseases are caused by specific microbes
Each microbe only causes a specific ____________
tracking diseases and public health measures (preventative). Possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health
Who developed the scientific method for establishing microbial cause of disease?
Who studied anthrax?
1. Microbes found in all cases of disease, absent in health individuals
2. Microbe isolated from host & growth in pure culture
3. Disease occurs when microbe introduced into healthy individual (same symptoms)
4. Same strain of microbe obtained from newly diseased host
growing only one type of microbe in a defined region
A pure culture contains only ____ type of microbe
It doesn't take into consideration asymptomatic people, time & detection and ethics
Why can't Koch's postulates always be used to identify the cause of disease?
Dr. Edward Jenner
Who created modern immunizations? (cowpox)
Who demonstrated that if you let bacteria grow and get old, it would no longer cause disease in the chickens
Heat and age
How can a strain be attenuated?
What does the word attenuated mean?
Who is known as the father of immunizations?
Who advocated for standard hand-washing practices in medical facilities?
Who created the standard instrument sterilization techniques?
who discovered penicillin on accident?
Chain & Florey
Who started producing penicillin in mass?
When was virus discovered?
"Infective Particles" are crystalized by who? (tobacco mosaic disease)
Who developed enrichment culture sand selective media?
______________ were incorporated by pre-eukaryotes as eukaryotic organelles
Who proposed a new form of prokaryotic life called archaea?
__________% of microbial knowledge was gained after 1900
Recombinant DNA technology
Taking DNA from 2 sources and combining it into 1
both microbes and humans are benefitting from the relationship
No benefit from our microbes, but microbes aren't harming us
Microbes take away some things that our cells have (glucose)
the severity or harmfulness of a disease or poison.
Is the lethal dose or the infectious dose easier to measure?
-Needs to attach to the host
-Have to obtain nutrients
What are the 3 things that the pathogen needs in the host?
Look at the major causes of death in the US in the 20th century, we can see a shift from infectious diseases to __________________ diseases
something that another person can observe
only the person with the infection(s) can feel
The collection of signs and symptoms that occur from a primary infection or disease.
The collection of signs and symptoms that are characteristics of certain diseases. This usually leads to a diagnosis.
The stage where the pathogenic microbe has attached and it is starting to obtain the nutrients and divide. tHe immune response here is low.
The stage where the number of pathogens is increasing. The immune response here is also increasing, but not at a powerful level. Signs and symptoms are mild, such as a runny nose or reduced energy.
The stage where there are a large number of pathogenic microbes. Their signs and symptoms are worsening.
The stage where the number of pathogenic microbes are decreasing but the immune response is increasing. Signs and symptoms are lessening.
The stage where there is a heightened immune response, but the number of pathogenic microbes is almost back to the starting point. No signs or symptoms.
The stage where they may have some pathogens entering the body, but the immune system remembers them.
This happens when microbes are transmitted through an intermediate (indirectly) by inanimate objects or by an insect vector
Transmission of an infectious agent from an insect to its offspring
Tracking an infectious disease using places, times and people
The use of surveillance data to try to figure out the cause of the disease and risk factors.
Small location, will always be present
A huge spike in numbers, in a defined location and in a shorter time
Global, Large number, short timeframe
total number of active cases of a disease
The number of new cases of a disease
fatality and recovery
What factors decrease prevalence?
the _____________ the slope of the prevalence line, that means that there are increasingly low fatality and recovery rates
location, age, sex, occupation
What categories are best applicable to disease?
A random peak in an incidence level graph may indicate that a _________________ of a vaccine many be needed, or an incidence with unvaccinated people
3 stage process of surveillance
1. signs and symptoms to match CDC description
2. Identify the location/patient profile
3. Identify trends
used to monitor infectious diseases
it is more sensitive because there is a lower threshold for detection and it is easier to identify small differences between pathogens
Why is molecular surveillance easier?
by blocking one part of the chain
How do you stop the Infection cycle?
Safety level you will need to be wearing a hazmat suit in because there is no treatment readily available to treat you if anything does happen.
Safety level where you will be using a fume hoof because the treatment needed in case something happens isn't readily available
Safety level where the microbes won't cause a disease in humans unless they get the opportunity to so. If something does happen, their doctor can easily treat it.
Safety level where we are using low-rick microbes that do not pose a threat to humans.
Where the pathogen grows, multiplies and lives. Natural location where we will find a certain microbe or a certain pathogen. Can be environmental or other organisms.
If a human is a reservoir, this means that they are __________ a pathogen, but are not actually having an infection.
An infectious disease that a human get from an animal
________ was transmitted from chimps to humans
humans transmitted _________________ to large cats
Cats transmitted ____________ to humans
dogs transmitted _______________ to humans
Haven't seen before or haven't seen at the epidemic level that is being noted at certain locations
An infectious disease that had been a problem, but it was kind of under control (in most locations) but for one reason or another, it is starting to become a lot more prevalent and levels are rising to the point where it is considered an epidemic in certain locations
________% of emerging diseases in the last 30 years are zoonotic
_____________ diseases are rarely transmitted through humans, they are transmitted through air vectors
people moving into new areas and blood banks
Reemerging diseases could be due to what?
AIDS turning more to be immunocompromised
The tuberculosis reemergence could be due to what?
People not taking all of their antibiotics and killing all of the cells because the bad cells won't die right away.
Antibiotic resistance could be due to what?
Almost all _____________ have a cell wall
Some ___________ have a cell wall, many do not
Bacterial cells divide by ______________________, in which each cell replicates its own content and splits itself in half
Moving from high to low concentrations without any energy or proteins involved
Molecules are moving through a protein (down the gradient) instead of directly between the phospholipids
the kind of transport the goes from high to low concentration. It spreads things out using no energy transfer.
What type of transport goes from low to high concentrations? This requires energy because it is packing things closer together.
Moving in the same direction. Passive energy used for the other molecule to be used for active transport
Moving substrates in opposite directions. Passive energy used for the other molecule to be used for active transport
Peptidoglycan is found in gram _______________ bacterial cells
Peptidoglycan has amino acid crosslinks that provide ______________ stability
Peptidoglycan has teichoic acids and lipoproteins that provide _____________ stability
Peptidoglycan is a ___________ repeat
Does gram positive or negative have a thicker cell wall?
what connects the outer membrane to the cell wall?
What are the protein complexes found in the outer membrane that have a channel running through the center that allows molecules to pass in and out of the outer membrane?
What are the protective proteins that make sure the bacteria do not get destroyed by other molecules
In gram negative bacteria, what is the endotoxin? This doesn't actually harm the host
Within the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), what is specifically the endotoxin?
Short chain of different sugars that connect the Lipid-A to the O-Antigen
The outermost part of the bacterial cell. It is a carbohydrate chain that gives the cell identity.
Cell component that is harmless when the pathogen is intact, but when released by a lysed cell, the endotoxin overstimulates host defenses, causing endotoxic shock
What is made up of sugars and is super slimy? It is used for protection and communication
What is made up of proteins, making it the "smooth layer"? It is used for protection, adhesion and as a barrier. It lies between the capsule and the outer membrane
does the mycobacterial envelope stain?
its repells water
Why does the mycobacterial envelope not stain?
What are a bacteria without a true cell wall?
Acid-Fast cell wall
What is a complex cell well with peptidoglycan and mycolytic acid? This is resistant to gram staining
Acid fast staining
uses heat to stain the cell wall for visualization
Pilli are made of what protein?
An attachment pilli what attaches to surfaces
Conjugation (sex) pilus
Helps out with DNA transfer between 2 cells
can help pathogens cause a disease in a host
________________ are used for motility and chemotaxis and are found in gram positive and negative
What protein are flagella made of?
The human genome is how long?
a nucleoid contains approximately _______ loops-domains
Allows the cell to have different reactions and environments
Compartmentalization allows for an increase in _______________, which makes more space available for proteins to function
The uptake of material from outside of cell and bringing it to the inside of the cell to fuse with a lysosome and get digested by enzymes
The release of the waste products
Eating bacteria through the endocytosis and exocytosis system
The _____________ has a double membrane that is continuous with the ER
Nuclear Pore Complexes
RNA/ small molecules in and out of cell, viruses can hijack these!
we had eukaryotic cells at some point that did not have mitochondria or chloroplasts. The eukaryotic cell was using the smaller cell to generate energy.
star shaped structure that gets filled with water to prevent the bursting of the cell
a group of organelles specialized for invading host cells and tissues
growing community of bacteria
only have 1 bacterial species growing and everything in there will be genetically identical
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