282 terms

World History Honors Final Flashcards

This is just the key vocab terms and people from Ch 15-28
"rebirth"; a movement centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
intellectual movement during Renaissance; focused on human potential and achievements & worldly subjects
Baldassare Castiglione
Italian humanist who wrote "The Courtier"
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian humanist who wrote "The Prince"
Lorenzo de Medici
part of powerful family and supported/funded the arts
Leonardo da Vinci
famous artist; Mona Lisa, The Last Supper; Renaissance man
Michelangelo Buonarroti
famous sculptor; works include Pieta, David, Sistine Chapel
painter and architect; The School of Athens
architect; St. Peter's Basilica
Johannes Gutenburg
invented movable type; which resulted in most dramatic upheaval in history
Desiderius Erasmus
Christian humanist who wrote extensively about the need for a pure and simple Christian life
Sir Thomas Moore
wrote Utopia
William Shakespeare
famous English playwright
Christine de Pisan
Italian woman who wrote "The City of Women"
Albretcht Durer
German artist who painted with oils and used techinques of realism, perspective, and texture
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who focused on landscapes and domestic life, used symbolism
Protestant Reformation
religious movement; split Christan church in Europe and led to establishment of several new churches
pardons issued by the pope that could gain salvation and reduce soul's time in purgatory
Martin Luther
German monk whose protests (95 theses) against the Church led to calls for reform
est. by Zwingli; a govt in which church and state are joined & officials are considered divinely inspired
John Calvin
important reformer during Reformation; founded Calvinism & predestination
preached by Calvin; belief that one's salvation is already decided
Henry VIII
king of England who turned from the Catholic church and created the Church of England
declared invalid; referring to Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon
Elizabeth I
daughter of Henry VIII and protestant Queen who persecuted Catholics
Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to spread of Protestantism
Society of Jesus; influential Catholic group
Ignatius of Loyola
nobleman who founded Jesuit order
Council of Trent
convened to redefine doctrines of the Catholic Faith
Charles Borromeo
archbishop of Milan who took steps to reform
Francis of Sales
worked in France against Calvinism
Teresa of Avila
inspirational Carmelite nun during Counter-Reformation
a light, fast sailing ship used for exploring
Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration, directed voyages of discovery along the African coast
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer who sailed around the tip of Africa and reached India
Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route to Asia
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who was first to circumnavigate the globe
sail completely around
Sir Francis Drake
English admiral who rounded the tip of South America and explored the west coast
Henry Hudson
English navigator who discovered the Hudson river
Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given land and Native Americans in exchange for teaching the Natives Christianity
conqueror; spanish term
Moctezuma II
Aztec emperor at the time of Spanish arrival
Francisco Pizarro
conquistador who invaded Peru's Incan Empire
Incan ruler
Spanish officials
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish priest and reformer
Treaty of Tordesillas
drew an imaginary line through the Atlantic, everything to the west belonged to Spain and everything East was Portugal's
Columbian exchange
global transfer of disease, food, and animals between Europe and America
economic policy that declared a nation's strength depended on its wealth
balance of trade
the difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time
grants of money
economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
joint-stock companies
businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses
estates where cash crops were grown on a large scale
triangular trade
trading network that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa
Middle Passage
second leg of triangular trade that brought Africans to the Americas to be sold as slaves
Olaudah Equiano
African American abolitionist
African Diaspora
dispersal of African throughout the America and Western Europe
warriors for the Islam faith
powerful family of Osman and his descendants
boys converted to Islam and trained as elite soldiers and made loyal only to the sultan
Mehmed II
strong military Ottoman leader who took Constantinople
Suleyman I
"the Magnificent"; Ottoman empire reached its height under his rule
"king"; Persian title
strong shah of Safavid empire who reformed the government and military
"the tiger"; known as Zahir ud-Din, founded Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
founded by Babur; from "Mongol", India's first Muslim empire
Akbar the Great
greatest Mughal ruler, united the empire and reformed government and military
blended Islam and Hinduism
Taj Mahal
greatest example of Mughal architecture
self-made Mughal emperor of and expanded its borders, but led to the decline of Mughals
"vastly martial" founded the Ming dynasty, brought reform and prosperity to China by re-instituting Confucian principles and eliminating corrupt officials and reducing taxes
Ming ruler who moved Ming capital to Beijing (Forbidden City built)
Zheng He
Chinese Muslim admiral who led seven voyages around the Indian Ocean to demonstrate China's power and gain tribute
Matteo Ricci
an Italian Jesuit priest who gained influence in China; introduced European thinking
Qing emperor; reduced taxes and expanded empire, supported education and Jesuits
Quing emperor; expanded China to its largest size in history
Lord George Macartney
British official who came to China to discuss expanding trade with China
trained professional warriors in Japan
"the way of the warrior"; strict code of ethics
Zen Buddhism
a form of Buddhism spread throughout China and Japan; stressed discipline and meditation
powerful warlords who held large estates, gained control of their own territories and battled for power
Tokugawa Ieyasu
established Tokugawa Shogunate after gaining complete control of Japan
form of poetry with 3 lines and 17 syllables
new type of theater in Japan
Yi Song-gye
powerful general gained control of Korea and established Choson kingdom
absolute monarch
a ruler whose power was not limited and believed to be given their power by divine right
divine right
concept that held that the monarchs received their power from God and couldn't be challenged
Charles V
elected Holy Roman Emperor
Peace of Augsburg
agreement that gave each German prince the right to decide whether his state would be Catholic or Protestant
Philip II
Charles' son; led Catholic efforts to recover parts of Europe from protestantism; tried to stop Eng from raiding his ships and return it to Catholicism
El Greco
a Greek painter; religious symbolism
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote
Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz
Mexican nun who wrote poerty, porse and plays
SPanish Armada
Navy assembled by Philip II to attack England
French Calvinist
Saint Batholomew's Day Massacre
event in Paris that killed thousands of Huguenots by order of Catholic queen
Edict of Nantes
granted Huguenots limited freedom of worship and presented break from conformities of the past
Louis XIII
young weak king who ruled with guidance of Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
chief minister under Louis XIII and most trusted adviser
Louis XIV
"sun king"; history's best example of an absolute monarch; expensive, lavish king (Versailles)
War of the Spanish Succession
war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and brought Europe to war over it
Treaty of Utrecht
stated that Louis' grandson got the Spanish throne, but France and Spain would never again have the same monarch, territory had to be surrendered from France
a group of strict Calvinists who demanded the Church of England reform
Charels I
Stuart who defied Parliament which triggered the English Civil War
Charles' supporters, mainly wealthy nobles; opposition called "roundheads"
a republican govt based on the common good of all the people
event in which Parliament reconvened and voted to bring back the monarchy
Charles II
new king of England after Restoration
Glorious Revolution
transfer of power to William III and Mary II, the rightful heirs
William and Mary
Mary was daughter of James I and William was her husband; invited back to rule England
constitutional monarchy
a monarchy limited by law
landowner in Russia
young prince title in Russia
Ivan IV
"Ivan the Terrible" first Russian ruler to assume title of czar;
Peter the Great
Czar of Russia who transformed Russia into a modern state; westernized Europe
process of bringing elements of Western culture to Russia
Catherine the Great
Czarina of Russia who introduced a number of reforms and continued Peter's policy of westernization
Thirty Year's War
conflict in Europe that faought over religion and power among ruling dynasties; began after Protestant rebellion against Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Westphalia
ended the 30 years' war
Maria Theresa
inherited Hapsburg throne
Frederick the Greatt
Prussian ruler who seized the Austrian provinces
geocentric theory
belief that the earth was the center of the universe and the stars, moon, and sun revolved around it
Scientific Revolution
age that posed new theories and ways of thinking in science
scientific method
consists of five basic steps to solving an experiment/problem
Rene Descartes
developed the scientific method
Nicolaus Copernicus
came up with heliocentric theory
heliocentric theory
discovery that the earth revolves around the sun
Italian scientist who built first telescope and discovered several planets and moons
Isaac Newton
English scientist who discovered theory of gravity
Robert Boyle
father of modern chemistry; discovered atoms
law of conservation of mass
age of reason
social gathering held by Parisian women to promote new ideas
Thomas Hobbes
Englishman believed people needed government to impose order, believed people were naturally "solitary, poor, nasty, brustish..."
social contract
Hobbes' belief in the exchange between society and government
John Locke
English philosopher who believe people were naturally happy, tolerant and reasonale; all are born with natural rights and govt protects natural rights
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher; believed people were born good and equal; believed govt should work for common good and individuals should be given rights
Baron de Montesquieu
French thinker, argued the best govt. included a separation of powers with branches
French philosopher; attacked injustice in the government
Old Order
ancient regime
King Louis XVI
French king at the time of the Revolution
Louis' wife; beheaded during revolution
First Estate
made up of Roman Catholic clergy
Second Estate
Third Estate
sans culottes
"without knee breeches" peasants
Declaration of the RIghts of Man and of the citizen
declaration that laid out the basic principles of the Revolution
Maximillian Robespierre
radical leader known for his intense dedication to the Revolution
a device that dropped a sharp heavy blace through the victim's neck
a revolution against a govt that was established by a revolution
Reign of Terror
a serious of accusations, trials, and executions that created a wave of fear throughout the country
Napoleon Bonaparte
a ruthlessly ambitious mili leader who became emperor over France and much of Europe
Admiral Horatio Nelso
British naval commander who captured Napoleon's ships and destroyed the French fleet
coup d'etat
a forced trasfer of power; Directory to Napoleonic rule
question put before all voters by Napoleon; "Did they want to declare France an empire?"
Continental System
Napoleon's effort to plan a blockade on Great Britian's trade that prohibited France or any allies to trade with them
a sense of identity and unity as a people
Czar Alexander I
Russian ruler who defeated Napoleon
Hundred Days
brief period of revewed glory for Napoleon and of problems for his enemies
Congress of Nienna
grand meeting to create a plan to restore order and stability to Europe after Napoleonic Wars
Prince Klemens von Metternich
represented Austria at congress
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
represented for France
Duke of Wellington
British leader at Battle of Waterloo
large payment to other countries to compensate for damage
Industrial Revolution
era when the use of power-driven machinery was developed
enclosure movement
movement that allowed for more efficient faming methods and increased food supply
factors of production
land, labor, and capital
cottage industry
a craft occupation performed in the home
the process of changing to power-driven machinery
First country to industrialize
Great Britain
flying shuttle
doubled the speed at which a weaver could do the job; inventions such as these resulted in job loss
building that housed industrial machines
James Watt
steam engine
Robert Fulton
Clermont steamship
labor union
organizations representing workers' interests
work stoppages
mass production
the system of manufacturing large numbers of identical items
interchangeable parts
identical machine made parts
assembly line
innovation in which the product moves from worker to worker as each one performs a steph in the manufacturing process
"free to do" economics in which govt. doesn't interfere with business
Adam Smith
leading advocate for laissez faire; "The Wealth of Nations"
Thomas Malthus
ideas about population; believe population grew faster than food and would reach a limit
someone who starts a new business
Andrew Carnegie
"rags to riches" success; steel industry corporation
belief that for the good of all society the govt should control industry
Karl Marx
declared that as capitalism grew, workers would become impoverished
system in which govt own almost all means of production and controls economic planning
standard of living
level of material comfort
Queen Victoria
ruler of Great Britain; held longest rule in Britain history; reign became known as Victorian Era
Factory Act
limited the working hours of children in textile factories
Reform Act of 1832
gave industrial cities representation in Parliament for the first time
the right to vote
Emmeline Pankhurst
founder of the Women's Social and Political Union
Louis Phillipe
(1) ruler with constitutional monarchy; peasants grew poorer and upper class became prosperous
Louis Napoleon
(2) president of French republic
Napoleon III
(2) elected emperor of France
Dreyfus Affair
revealed the extent of anti-semitism; a Jew falsely accused and tried even though known to be innocent
prejudice towards Jews
a Jewish nationalist movement to re-create a Jewish state in its original homeland
Theodor Herzl
covered Dreyfus affair trial
Giuseppe Mazzini
leader for Young Italy movement; wanted unification of the separate Italian states
Camillo di Cavour
founded a nationalist newspaper; prime minister of the independent kingdom of sardinia
Giuseppe Garibaldi
"sword''; Red shirts group leader; gained control of Sicily
Victor Emmanuel
King of Sardinia; offered Sicily
Frederick Wilhelm IV
Prussian king who promised a constitution and other reforms, but went against many of these promises
customs union
Otto van Bismark
a conservative and politician; leading force behind German unification;
Wilhelm I
new Prussian king who chose Bismark as Prussia's prime minister
govt was practical rather than idealistic
"Blood and Iron"
fighting, war, and action; Bismark used this phrase and built the Prussian army into a great war machine
Austro-Prussian war
Prussian victory over Austria
Franco-Prussian War
Prussian victory over France
Franz Joseph I
ruled an unstable Austrian empire; rebelled by Magyars
Dual Monarchy
Austria-Hungary; problem with different languages and ignored minorities
Crimean War
war over the Holy Land; ended in a stalemate
Balkan Wars
costed the Ottoman Empire most of its land
Young Turks
nationalist group who began a revolution; fought against absolute revolution
govt by one ruler with unlimited power
agricultural workers
Alexander II
Freed serfs and modernized Russia
widespread violent attacks
Trans-Siberian RR
linked western Russia with Siberia; built by Nicholas II
Russo-Japanese War
Russian defeat; shocked Russians and unrest grew
socialist republic
a society in which there would be no private property and the state would collectively own and distribute goods
Vladimir Lenin
Marxist who supported overthrowing of czar
Bloody Sunday
day in Russian history when troops fired at protest groups in winter palace
an assembly that would approve all laws
British East India Company
trading company established by Britain in India
spheres of influence
idk that one
Meiji Restoration
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entente
France, Great Britian, Russia
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of Austria-Hungary
Gavrilo Princip
young Serbian man who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia
Western Front
deadlocked region in northern France
trench warfare
fighting from trenches
total war
war requiring the use of all of society's resources
information designed to influence people's opinions
Battle of Verdun
German attack solely meant to kill as many French as possible
Battle of the Somme
main Allied assault with no major breakthrough
Third Battle of Ypres
British offensive that ended in a disaster for the British
Gallipoli Campaign
the Allies planned to land a force of the Gallipoli Peninsula to destroy guns and forts; failure
deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group
small Marxist group that sought to change life in Russia through Revolution
Grigory Rasputin
a self-proclaimed (actually corrupt) Holy man and healer who advised the czar's wife
New Economic Policy
a plan that permitted some capitalist activity in Russia because many peasants were starving
Leon Trovsky
top Bolshevik official
Woodrow Wilson
president of US during WWI
German submarines
Zimmerman Note
secret message from German diplomat Arthur Zimmerman to officials in Mexico in which Germany proposed that Mexico attack the US in exchange for the return of their land stolen by the US
passenger ship sunk by Uboats with Americans onboard
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's plan for peace; included reduction of weapons and proposed org formed with all of the world's nations
Treaty of Versailles
stated that the Germans take full responsibility for the war and pay for all damages
League of Nations
formed by Treaty of Versailles
territories to be ruled by European powers
Balfour Declaration
favored establishing a Jewish state in Palestine
Long March
purpose was to find a safe place for the Chinese communists in China
Jiang Jieshi
led partnership of communists and Guomindang nationalists
Amritsar Massacre
400 people killed by Britishin Amritsar
Mohandas Gandhi
Indian lawyer who organized protests against British and believed in nonviolence
Kemal Ataturk
"Father of the Turks"; first president of Turkey
Manchurian Incident
Japanese leader decided to conquer the Manchuria region for natural resources
Japanese control in Manchuria
Anti-Comintern Pact
Japan and Germany agreed to work together to oppose the spread of communism
Nanjing Massacre
100,000 Chinese citizens murdered by Japanese
an authoritarian form of govt that places the good of the nation above all else
Benito Mussolini
dictator of Italy after WWI; founded National Fascist party and wanted to build a great empire out of Italy
attempt by a govt to control all aspects of life
Joseph Stalin
Soviet dictator; communist
labor camp
Nazi Party
Nationalist Social Party; established by Adolf Hitler
Nuremberg Laws
created a separate legal status for German Jews, eliminating their citizenship and many rights
Night of Broken Glass; days of encouraged ant-Jewish riots