66 terms

Maitz Spring Exam 2011

Douglas Maitz's Exam.
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Absolute Monarchy
A form of government in which kings or queens held all of the power within their states' boundaries.
Edict of Nantes
A declaration of religious tolerance that said Huguenots could live in peace in France and ste up their own houses of worship.
Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII's minister who was also a leader of the Catholic Church; moved against Huguenots and Protestantism, and sought to weaken the nobles' power.
Skepticism
Idea that nothing can ever be known for certain.
Louis XIV
The most powerful French King in history who took the throne at 14; He weakened the nobles power and increased the power of intendants
Constitutional Monarchy
A system of governing in which the king or queen's power is limited by law.
Glorious Revolution
The bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary.
Social Contract
The agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
Salons
Events that took place in the mansions of wealthy women; Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and other intellects met to discuss ideas.
Frederick (II) The Great
The King of Prussia who committed himself to reform.
Joseph II
The most radical royal reformer of Austria.
Catherine the Great
The empress of Russia who ruled with absolute authority, but still sought to reform Russia; Read the works of the Philosophes and used their ideas in reforms.
Denis Diderot
Created the first Encyclopedia, which consisted of articles and essays from many leadering scholars.
Versailles
A center of arts during Louis's reign; site of the 500 yard palace built by King Louis XIV.
Mulattos
persons of mixed European and African ancestry.
Mestizos
Persons of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.
Utopia
An ideal place; an imaginary land described by Thomas More in his book, ______.
Radicals
A European people who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people; opposed monarchy; "left"
Liberal
A European -- usually a middle-class business leader or merchant -- who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments.
Conservatives
A European who upheld the idea of a limited monarchy and wanted few changes in government; "right"
Nationalism
Loyalty to one's own country.
Hobbes
Author of Leviathan who believed all humans were naturally wicked and selfish; Ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control; believed in a social contract.
John Locke
He believed people learned from experience and improved themselves; praised self-government; believed all humans had 3 natural rights: life, liberty, property.
Voltaire
This Philosophe published mroe than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama; He targeted clergy, aristocracy, and government; later exiled to England.
Montesquieu
A Philosophe who was a French writer and studied political liberty; He believed Britain was best governed and balanced; believed in separation of powers.
Rousseau
This philosophe believed in individual freedom, equality of all people (abolish the nobility), believed in a direct democracy, and disagreed with other Enlightened writers.
Beccaria
This philosophe believed laws should preserve social order, and not avenge crimes; Against torture and capital punishment.
Mary Wollstonecraft
An enlightened woman who believed a woman's educations should not be secondary to a man's; women should enter politics and medicine.
Scientific Method
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas.
Bacon
An English statesman who attacked attacked medieval scholars for replying on ancient thinkers too much; Empiricism
Descartes
The man who developed analytical geometry; everything should be doubted until proven; relied on math and logic.
Isaac Newton
Father of Physics; Created the law of Universal Gravitation (every object attracts every other object)
Galileo
An Italian scientist who built a telescope and built on new theories about astronomy; clashed with the pope over his teachings.
What are the three Natural Rights?
Life, Liberty, and Property
Heliocentric
The belief the sun is the center of the universe.
Johannes Kepler
This man believed mathematical laws govern planetary motion; believed planets traveled in elliptical orbits, not circles
Nicolaus Copernicus
Studied old Greek ideas and concluded the sun was the center of the universe.
Separation of Powers
The idea of keeping any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.
Scientific Revolution
A new way of thinking that was based on cafeful observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs.
Peninsulares
Colonists who were born in Spain
Creoles
A Colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents.
Guillotine
A machine for beheading people, used as a maneas of execution during French Revolution.
Sans-Culottes
A radical group during the French Revolution made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages.
Social Darwinism
The application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies
Which region was the "powder keg" before the start of WWI?
The Balkans
realpolitik
"the politics of reality" -- the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism.
No man's Land
the space between trenches
Oliver Cromwell
The Scotish Puritan general who arrest and beheaded King Charles; He abolished the monarchy and became a military general.
Which British colony was called "The Jewel in the crown"?
India
Marie Antionette
Wife of Louis XVI who spent money extravagantly.
Louis XVI
A Bad King of France who was forced to call the Estates-General because the nation had no money left; spent much money himself.
Robespierre
This Jacobin leader ruled France like a military dictator, executing many on flimsy charges; Started the Great Fear
Reign of Terror
the reign of Robespierre
Estates-General
An assembly of representatives from all three estates
Jacobins
Club members of the Jacobin Club, a political, radical, French organization against the monarchy.
Congress of Vienna
A series of meetings in 1814-1815 during which European leaders sought to establish a long-lasting peace and secuirty after Napoleon's defeat.
Concordat
A formal agreement between the Church and government dealing with control of Church affairs.
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
Communism
An economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing rrade between Great Brtain and continental Europe, intended to destory Great Britain's Economy.
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances among European nations, divised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions.
Detente
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the US during the Nixon administration.
USA Patriot Act
An antiterrorism bill of 2001 that strengthened governmental rights to detain foreigners suspected of terrorism and prosecute terrorist crimes.
Holy Alliance
A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna.
Danton
Jacobin lawyer who was dedicated to the rights of Paris' poor people.
Marat
A Newspaper editor and Jacobin who called for the death of the king's supporters
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