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Terms in this set (69)
ca out5cl in4cl out103endocrineGastrin,Cholesystokinin (CCK),Secretin,GIP (Gastric Inhibitory Peptide), MotiliparacrineSomatostatin ,HistamineneurocrineVIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide), GRP (Gastrin Releasing Peptide), NO (Nitric Oxide)resting membrane potential-60-50resting membrane potentialna+ -k+ pumpstomach cycles3/minsmall intestine cycles12/minspike potentials threshold-40spike potentialsca++ na+ channelscircular musclecontracts behind boluslongitudinal musclecontracts ahead of the bolusFunction of masticationBreakdown of cellulose cell wallsInhibition reflexthe jaw opensstretch reflexthe jaw closeBreathing is inhibited duringthe pharyngeal phase of swallowing.Primary peristaltic contractionthe pharyngeal cavity.Secondary peristaltic contractionis initiate by presence of food with in the esophagus - Vagovagal reflexgastric reservoirthe fundus and corpusgastric pumpthe distal part of the corpus and the antrumgastric reservoir activitytonic activitygastric pump activityphasic activityReceptive relaxationswallowing reflexAdaptive relaxationtriggered by stretch receptors (vago-vagal reflex)Feedback relaxationsmall intestinephase of propulsionproximal antrum.phase of emptyingmiddle antrum.phase of retropulsionover the terminal antrum.Gastric factors that promote emptyinggastrin /volume& liquids foodduodenal factors that inhibit stomach emptyingCCK/GIP/SECRETIN/ ACIDITY/ OSMOLALITY/ DISTENTIONincrease the intestinal motilitygastrin/CCK/5-HT/motilindecrease the intestinal motilitysecretin/ glucagon/ VIP/GIPColono-colicdistension of one part, relaxes the restGastro-colicfilling of stomach increases frequency of mass movementsduodeno-colichigh tension in the duodenal wall. Signal spreads through the myenteric plexus to the colon and increases the frequency of action potentials in the smooth muscle cells. That increases speed of the propulsion movements.parotid glandsecrets only serous secretionsubmandibular glandsecretes mainly serous secretion and small amounts of mucous(mix)Sublingual glandsecretes mainly mucouslipasehydrolyses triacylglycerola-amylase(starch and glycogen)HCLHelp absorption of iron/Activation of pepsinogenIntrinsic factorsHelp for absorption Vit-B12Cephalic phasepresent above the stomach(20%)Gastric phaseat level the stomach(70%)Intestinal phasepresent in the intestine(10%)steps of hemostatic mechanism:1. Vasoconstriction2. The formation of a platelets plug 3. Blood coagulation 4. The fibrinolytic systemVasoconstrictor substanceThromboxan A2The formation of a platelets plug occurs by the following steps1. Platelets adhesion 2. Platelets secretion 3. Platelets aggregationplatelet release reactionserotonin, ADP, thromboxane A2,Coagulation factors are produced in the liver, except forfactor VIII, which is believed to be produced in the endothelial cells.anti- platelets factorsprostacyclin and NO2anti-coagulation factorthrombomodulin--protein c inactivate factors V&VIIIHeparin is produced bymast cells and basophilsHeparin act as an anticoagulant through combine withantithrombin IIIHemophilia AFactor VIII deficiencyHemophilia BFactor IX deficiencyVirchow's triadstasis, vessel wall injury, hyper-coagulability