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Therapeutic Use of Interventions
Terms in this set (82)
List the three maladaptive symptoms Of ADHD
What is the average onset age of ADHD and which gender is more likely to be diagnosed
List the three subtypes of ADHD
2. Predominantly Inattentively,
3. Predominately hyperactive-impulsive
List the 9 symptoms of Inattentive ADHD
1. Makes careless mistakes; lacks attention to details.
2. Difficulty sustaining attention
3. Does not appear to listen when spoken to
4 Difficulty following through on instructions
5. Poor organizational skills
6. Avoids tasks that require mental effort
7. Often loses necessary items.
8. Easily distracted by unimportant stimuli
9. Forgetful in daily activities
List the 8 symptoms of Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD
1. Fidgets or taps hands or feet
2. Often gets in out of a chair when expected to sit still
3. Often runs about
4. Difficulty engaging in leisures activities quietly
5. Often "on the go" or uncomfortable sitting still.
6. Talks excessively
7. Blurts out answers before the question can be completed
8. Difficulty waiting or taking turns.
What is the criteria in regards to symptoms and age to be diagnosed with Inattentive or Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD
5-6 Inattentive or Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms must be observed by age 12 in 2 or more settings and interferes with daily functioning or academic performance.
What is the criteria to be diagnosed with ADHD Combined before or after age 17?
Children younger than 17 years of age must show at least six symptoms of Inattentive ADHD or Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD. People older than 17 must show five
What are some possible factors of ADHD?
Genetics, Environmental factors, Nutrition, possible brain injuries, and societal factors.
Lack of which chemical contributes to ADHD?
Dopamine. Is produced in the pre-frontal cortex and is responsible for executive functioning such as attention and concentration.
What 6 disorders are ADHD often co-morbid with?
2. What is ADHD co-morbid with in older children and adults.
1. Mood, anxiety, sensory, motor, learning, and disruptive.
2. Substance Abuse
Which disorder in relation to movement is not recognized as comorbid with ADHD.
Developmental Coordination Disorder.
List some Comorbid Disorders associated with ADHD
1. Sensory Processing
2. Substance Abuse
3. Learning Disorders
6. Developmental Coordination Disorder
Children with ADHD that have motor skills problems experience motor skills problem because of which 2 ADHD symptoms?
Distractibility and Impulsiveness
ADHD is associated with deficits in which 2 types of processing
Sensory Processing Disorder and Somatosensory Processing (which includes adverse reactions to tactile stimuli and motor planning).
DEFINE and Explain DAMP
Deficit in Attention, Motor Planning, and Processing. Researchers question whether individuals with this common clustering of problems represent a single disorder or represent an attention disorder with co-occurring disorders.
Which behaviors in ADHD decrease and increase with age.
Overt behavior or hyperactivity decreases while difficulty to focus, sustain attention and disorganizations carries into adulthood.
Rather than using medical or biologically based tests how is ADHD diagnosed?
On Observations and Reports
What type of information is gathered during the ADHD evaluation process?
1. Detailed Description about the symptoms.
2. Caregivers are asked about the behavior.
3. Specialists pay close attention to an individual's behavior in a particular setting or the individual's behavior when engaged in activity.
What are three main methods for evaluating a child with ADHD?
1. Review medical and educational records
2. Interview the parents and child(if old enough).
3. Administer child behavior rating scales
What are four things you can learn about from interviewing a child with ADHD?
What are two common child behavior rating scales?
Behavior Assessment System For Children
Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment.
What are two common adult rating scales?
ADD Rating Scale
Adult Self-Report scale
For Individuals with ADHD Psychological and Psychosocial testing are done to examine that which type of disorders might co-exist with ADHD
Why does professionals working with adults need to consider a wider range of symptoms compared to when working with children's
Symptoms with adults tend to be more varied and less clear-cut as those seen with children and co-existing conditions are often present.
How is the evaluation process for adults with ADHD similar to the evaluation for children with ADHD?
Adults go through psychological testing, behavior rating scales and medical evaluations to rule other possible explanations for their symptoms.
Which 3 conditions have adult ADHD been associated with?
3. Substance Abuse
Define Multimodal Approach
Using a number of different interventions in an effort to reduce ADHD symptoms and enhance daily functioning
1. Define Stimulant Medications. 2. Give examples.
1. Commonly used drugs for treating ADHD in children and adults.
2. Examples include Methyphenidate (MPH or Ritalin), and Mixed Amphetamine Salts (MAS)
How does Stimulant Medications Work?
Increases levels of dopamine and nor-epinephrine in the brain, and the medication has a calming effect, which improves inattention, impulsivity, and overactivity.
What are 4 common trade names for children stimulants?
1. What is a common stimulant medication for adults
2. Why should adults ADHD prescriptions require special considerations?
2. Adults are more likely to be taking other medications for conditions such as diabetes or heart disease and will negatively interact with ADHD medications.
Give an example of a behavioral intervention and what is it's purpose?
Psychological counseling whose purpose is to target disruptive or challenge behaviors and address social skills, organizational skills, cognitive functioning and coping skills.
Describe peer/life coaching and is it popular with children or adults. Is peer coaching more action or insight oriented?
Popular with adults with ADHD. It is Action oriented and it focuses on personal goal setting, strategy selection, and accountability
Describe the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Extended Civil Rights protection to people with disabilities and children with ADHD who need reasonable accommodations
Give some examples of reasonable accommodations a teacher could give a child with ADHD
1. Break down a task
2. Set clear expectations/rules
3. Provide the student choices
4. Move the child's seat to a more appropriate area
What are some challenges young preschool children with ADHD face?
They are unable to play with other peers
Problems controlling temperament
manage their behaviors at home or in the community
What are some challenges older children with ADHD may face?
Role as a student is challenged
Quality of performance of ADL's and IADLs
What are some challenges adults with ADHD face
Social and community participation
sustaining meaningful relationships
successful functioning in the workplace
What are some tasks both children and adolescence with ADHD may struggle with?
Organizing basic self-care tasks
Apprehension of danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea.
Differentiate Anxiety and Fear
With anxiety the threat is unknown, vague, and internal.
List the five forms of anxiety discussed
General Anxiety Disorder
Define Panic Attack
Abrupt, intense fear which can peak within minutes and four of the following symptoms occur
List the symptoms of a Panic Attack
Shortness of breath/feeling of smothering
What is the criteria for Phobia Disorder
Individuals with phobia demonstrate fear, anxiety, or avoidance which is persistent and must last more than 6 months.
List the 5 most common phobias.
Blood injection injury
Is Situational Phobias more common in adults or children
What is the criteria of social anxiety disorder
Fear, anxiety or avoidance lasts 6 months or longer and interferes with occupational, social, or other areas of life functions
An individual who fears and avoids certain situations because thoughts of escape or help seem very difficult
List five situations that an individual with Agoraphobia would exhibit fear
Use of public transportation
Being in an open space
Being in an enclosed area
Being in a crowd or standing in line
Alone outside of the home
What is the criteria for Agoraphobia
2/5 symptoms must be present for 6 months or more and interferes with occupational, social, or other areas of life functioning.
Define Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Individual has excessive worry and anxiety which occurs for at least 6 months and must exhibit 3 or more of the 6 symptoms
What are the six symptoms of GAD
Feelings of being on-edge, restless, or keyed up
Becoming easily fatigued
Feeling as if the mind is going blank
Tension in muscles
Difficulty with sleep.
A combination of which three things tends to lead to anxiety disorder?
Which disorder have a stronger genetic basis
Life experiences, psychological traits, and genetics. (Panic disorders have a stronger genetic basis)
What hormones are involved in terms of anxiety
Gamma-aminobutyric Acid levels are decreased which causes CNS hyperactivity
A decrease in Serotonin causes anxiety
Increased dopaminergic activity is related to anxiety.
Which anxiety disorder is more common among family members
Phobias. Particularly blood-injection phobias.
Behavioral theories propose that anxiety is a response that is learned from exposure to blank or through the process of blank
Learned from exposure to parental behavior or through the process of classical conditioning.
Phobias typically begin to onset at what age?
What age are people diagnosed with panic disorder?
When does the disorder begin?
The disorder beings in late adolescence or early adulthood
Which anxiety disorder is the most common mental disorder in the U.S?
Which is more common social phobia or specific phobia?
Which phobia is the most common in women?
What are the two common mental disorders in men?
Specific phobia for women
For men 1. Substance related disorder 2. specific phobia
Which gender experiences GAD more?
1. What is the criteria to be diagnosed with Panic Disorder?
2. How long can a Panic Attack last?
1. Must experience four attacks within four weeks or one attack within the last month with the concern of when another attack will occur.
2. Attacks are short lived but can last up to 10 minutes and rarely 1 hour and can occur while sleeping
Which 3 symptoms do phobia and panic disorders share?
Increased heart rate
What is the onset age for Panic Disorder?
Early to middle adulthood
What is the Panic Disorder Severity Scale?
A scale used to monitor clients and determine if symptoms are recurring
1. Which 3 phobias are predominant in women?
2. Which phobia is experienced equally in both genders?
Animal, natural-environment, and situational-specific
Blood injection injury
What is the most common anxiety disorder and what type of treatment is south?
phobias. Individuals do not seek treatment
What is the onset age for Social phobia/ Social Anxiety Disorder
What gender is Social anxiety disorder more common in?
Childhood or adolescent
What are the four categories in which current guidelines for treatment of mental illness can be found in
2. Comprehensive Treatment Options
4. Expert consenus guidelines
1. What are the most common treatments for anxiety disorders?
2. What is the ultimate goal of anxiety disorders?
1. Combination of pharmacologic and psychological interventions (excluding specific phobias)
What are two medications used to treat anxiety disorders.
Anxiolytics and antidepressants.
When treating individuals with panic disorder what are two good ways to obtain progress
Self-help workbook and brief therapist contact
Systemic Desensitization is used to address which anxiety disorder?
What is a good intervention technique for both panic disorders and phobias?
Relaxation training such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, visualization and autogenic training?
What technique was used a behavioral intervention for Phobias?
For Social Anxiety Disorder list five cognitive-behavioral treatments proven to be moderately effective?
1. Exposure Therapy
2. Cognitive Restructuring
3. Exposure coupled with cognitive restructuring
4. social skills training
1. Are individual or group interventions beneficial for people diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder?
2. What are some obstacles to effective treatment for social anxiety disorder?
2. Individuals avoidance of treatment due to fear, shame or stigma.
Cognitive-Behavioral therapy and exposure therapy is useful for treating which type of anxiety disorder?
GAD can be addressed using cognitive therapy focusing on what two things?
Education and lifestyle alterations.
What should the OT focus WORK TOWARDS to increase success for individuals with social anxiety disorder?
Work toward establishing environmental control to reduce anxiety regarding the unknown
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