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bio 141 exam 1
campbell biology 12e chapters 1-7
Terms in this set (81)
Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences.
energy and matter
Explain how novel properties of life emerge from complex organization.
specific organization of arrangement and interaction of parts in a system are needed for life to function
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
prokaryotic: simple, small, no nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles (ex: bacteria and archaea)
eukaryotic: membrane enclosed organelles, nucleus
Describe the basic structure and function of DNA.
double helix of nucleotides, stores 100s or 1000s of genes
Explain the importance of regulatory mechanisms in living things. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback.
regulatory mechanisms keep living things alive and help ensure a smooth interaction of parts in a system
Distinguish among the three domains of life.
bacteria: most diverse prokaryotes
eukarya: all eukaryotic orgs., the protists and 3 kingdoms
List and distinguish among the three kingdoms of multicellular, eukaryotic life.
plants: produce their own food through photosynthesis
fungi: absorb nutrients
animals: ingest their food
Explain the phrase: "life's dual nature of unity and diversity". Explain how evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of living things.
unity evident in cell structure and dna, diversity and unity are explained by evolution
Describe the observations and inferences that led Charles Darwin to his theory of evolution by natural selection.
species showed "descent with modification" from common ancestors
Explain why diagrams of evolutionary relationships have a treelike form.
each species branches off from a common ancestor
Distinguish between the everyday meaning of the term 'theory' and its meaning to scientists.
everyday: untested speculation
science: a well tested and backed up explanation that is much broader than a hypothesis
Describe an example that illustrates how science may be influenced by social and cultural factors.
Distinguish between science and technology. Explain how science and technology are interdependent.
Identify the four elements that make up 96% of living matter.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Distinguish between neutrons and protons.
Distinguish between atomic number and mass number.
atomic number: number of protons
mass number: number of protons + neutrons
Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they are different.
differ in the number of neutrons, have the same number of protons
Define the terms energy and potential energy.
energy: capacity to cause change
potential energy: the energy that matter has because of its location or structure
Distinguish between nonpolar covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonds.
nonpolar covalent: atoms share the electron equally
polar covalent bond: one atom more electronegative, atoms do not share the electron equally
ionic bond: electron is transferred rather than shared
Explain a hydrogen bond.
covalent, when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
Give an example that illustrates how a molecule's shape can determine its biological function.
opiates and naturally produced endorphins have similar effects because their shapes are similar and bind to the same brain receptors
List the characteristics of water that are emergent properties resulting from hydrogen bonding.
ability to moderate temperature
expansion upon freezing
versatility as a solvent
Define cohesion and adhesion and physical properties of water.
cohesion: hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
adhesion: attraction between different substances (ex: between water and plant cell walls)
Name the products of the dissociation of water and give their concentration in pure water.
hydronium ion and hydroxide ion
concentration of each ion in pure water is 10^-7M at 25 degrees C
Define specific heat and name water's specific heat.
Define heat of vaporization.
Define acid, base, and pH.
acid: substance that increases the H+ concentration of a solution, pH less than 7
base: substance that reduces the H+ concentration of a solution, pH greater than 7
Explain how acids and bases may directly or indirectly alter the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Explain how buffers work.
contain a weak acid and its corresponding base, which combine reversibly with H+ ions
Describe how carbon skeletons may vary, and explain how this variation contributes to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules.
can vary in length, shape, and number of bonds
Explain how ATP functions as the primary energy transfer molecule in living cells.
ATP stores the potential to react with water, this reaction releases energy to be used by the cell
List the four major classes of macromolecules.
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Distinguish between monomers and polymers.
a polymer is a long molecule consisting of many monomers (building blocks)
Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
mono: simple sugars, usually multiples of CH2O
di: when a dehydration reaction joins two monos
poly: polymers of sugars
Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats.
building blocks: glycerol and fatty acids
structure: glycerol w 3 fatty acid chains attached
importance: energy storage, cushioning, and insulation
Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of phospholipids.
building blocks: fatty acids, phosphate group, and glycerol
structure: 2 fatty acids and phosphate group attached to glycerol
importance: form bilayer that serves as a boundary between the cell and its environment
Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of steroids.
building blocks: carbon skeleton
structure: a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
importance: cholesterol, a steroid, is a precursor from which other steroids are produced
Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats.
saturated: no double bonds, solid at room temperature, animal fats
unsaturated: at least one double bond, liquid fats, plant and fish fats
Name the principal energy storage molecules of plants and animals.
Name two major polymers of amino acids.
proteins and polypeptides
Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids.
amino acids are linked by covalent bonds called peptide bonds
List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Recognize that amino acids are grouped according to properties of the R group.
central carbon atom, amino group, carboxyl group, and a hydrogen atom
Explain what determines protein structure and why it is important.
one or more polypeptides twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique shape. important because function arises from structure
Explain how the primary structure of a protein is determined.
its unique sequence of amino acids
Name two types of secondary protein structure. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure.
coils and folds in polypeptide chain, the structure results from hydrogen bonds
b pleated sheet
Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary and quaternary protein structure.
tertiary: overall shape of a polypeptide, results from interactions between r-groups, mainly ionic, hydrogen bonds. strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges may reinforce the structure
quaternary: 2+ polypeptide chains forming one macromolecule
List conditions under which proteins may be denatured.
high temperatures or various chemical treatments
List the major components of a nucleotide, and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid.
major components: nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and 1+ phosphate groups
phosphate + nitrogenous base and pentose sugar (nucleoside) = nucleotide
Distinguish between pyrimidine and purine.
pyrimidine: six membered ring (cytosine, thymine, and uracil)
purine: six membered ring fused to a five membered ring (adenine and guanine)
Distinguish between ribose and deoxyribose.
ribose has a hydroxyl group on the 2' carbon and it is absent in deoxyribose
Distinguish between 5' end and 3' end of a nucleotide.
5' end has the terminal phosphate group on the end of the 5' C
3' end has the terminal hydroxyl group on the end of the 3' C
Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA.
Recognize commonalities of all cells.
Distinguish among all cells (archaea, bacteria, eukarya).
archaea and bacteria: prokaryotic cells (no nucleus, dna in unbound region called nucleoid, no membrane bound organelles, cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane)
eukarya: dna in a nucleus bounded by a double membrane, membrane bound organelles, cytoplasm between the plasma membrane and nucleus
Explain why there are limitations to cell size.
metabolic requirements set upper limits on size, surface area to volume ratio of a cell is critical, as a cell increases in size, its volume grows proportionately more than its surface area
Describe the structure and function of the nuclear envelope.
double membrane, each membrane has a lipid bilayer, encloses the nucleus
Briefly explain how the nucleus controls protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
nucleus contains the dna that ribosomes use to make proteins in the cytoplasm
Explain the role of the nucleolus in protein synthesis.
the site of ribosomal rna (rrna) synthesis
Distinguish between free and bound ribosomes in terms of location and function.
free: in the cytosol
bound: on outside of ER or nuclear envelope
List the components of the endomembrane system and describe the structure and function of each component.
nuclear envelope: covers nucleus
ER: smooth and rough, synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbs, detoxifies drugs and poisons, stores calcium ions
golgi apparatus: flattened sacs called cisternae, modifies products of ER, manufactures certain macros, sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles
lysosomes: membranous sac of enzymes, digest macromolecules
vacuoles: vesicles derived from ER and golgi app, move store stuff
plasma membrane: keeps cell from environment
Compare the structure and functions of smooth and rough ER.
smooth: no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbs, detoxifies drugs and poisons, stores calcium ions
rough: ribosomes, distributes transport vesicles, membrane factory for the cell
Describe the different types of vacuoles, giving the function of each kind.
food: formed by phagocytosis
contractile: pump excess water out of cells
central: hold organic compounds and water
Briefly describe the energy conversions carried out by mitochondria and chloroplasts.
mitochondria: uses oxygen to generate ATP
chloroplasts: traps light energy to use
Describe the structure of a mitochondrion.
smooth outer membrane and inner membrane folded into cristae
Describe the evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts are semiautonomous organelles.
enveloped by a double membrane
contain free ribosomes and circular dna molecules
grow and reproduce somewhat independently in cells
Explain the endosymbiont theory of the origin of organelles.
an early ancestor of eukaryotes engulfed an oxygen using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, the two became an endosymbiont, evolved into mitochondria
Explain the roles of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells.
produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
Know the main structural components of all cell membranes.
lipids, proteins, carbohydrates
Explain the meaning of the statement that phospholipids and most other membrane constituents are amphipathic molecules.
contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
Describe the fluidity of the components of a cell membrane and explain how membrane fluidity is influenced by temperature.
most of the components in the membrane can move sideways within the membrane, as temperatures cool, the membrane turns solid. membranes must be fluid to work properly
Explain how cholesterol resists changes in membrane fluidity as temperatures change.
at warm temps, it restrains movement of phospholipids
at cool temps, it maintains fluidity by preventing tight packing
Explain how phospholipid characteristics can also influence membrane fluidity in the presence of temperature change. (saturated/unsaturated)
unsaturated: more fluid than saturated
Distinguish between peripheral and integral membrane proteins.
peripheral: bound to the surface
integral: penetrate the surface, embedded
Explain the role of membrane carbohydrates in cell-cell recognition.
calls recognize each other by binding to molecules on the surface of the membrane
the diversity of carbs enables them to function as markers for cell identification
Explain how hydrophobic molecules cross cell membranes.
they dissolve in the lipid bilayer and pass through the membrane rapidly
Distinguish between channel proteins and carrier proteins.
channel: hydrophilic channel that certain molecules/ions can use as a tunnel
carrier: bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane
the movement of particles of any substance so that they spread out evenly into the available space
Distinguish between solutions that are hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic to cell contents.
isotonic: solute concentration same inside and out
hypertonic: solute concentration greater outside the cell
hypotonic: solute concentration less outside the cell
Distinguish among osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.
osmosis: diffusion of free water
facilitated diffusion: transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across the plasma membrane
active transport: requires energy, moves subs against their concentration gradient
Using the sodium potassium pump as a model, explain how ATP powers active transport and generates a membrane potential.
transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the NaK pump energizes the transport of K into the cell and Na out of the cell
Explain how bulk transport moves large quantities of liquids and solids across a cell membranes. (endocytosis/exocytosis)
exo: transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with it, and release their contents outside the cell
endo: macromolecules taken into the cell in vesicles
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