process by which glucose is stored as glycogen
breakdown of glycogen
oxidation of glucose
hexose monophoshate shuttle (PPP)
production of 5- carbon monosaccharides and NADH
TCA Cycle (krebs, citric acid)
oxidation of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA
making glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (amino acids)
site of glycogenesis, 7% by weight glycogen (store more in this one space)
site of glycogenesis, 1% glycogen (stored throughout body)
creates long chains of glucose joined by α 1-4 bonds
branches of glycogen
using α 1-6 glycosidic bonds, are located roughly every 7-13 glucosyl units
protein that starts off the glycogen molecule, found at core of particle
Glycogenin has self glycosylating activity
able to add about 7 glucose units onto itself, end to end
first step of glycogenolysis
second step of glycogenolysis
first step of glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)
second step of glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)
third step of glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)
A hormone from the adrenal medulla, released in proportion to the increase in metabolic stress; Binds to a beta adrenergic receptor on muscle and liver cells (also binds to α receptor in liver)
turns ATP into a cyclic AMP (cAMP) and a PPi.
activates a protein kinase called protein kinase A (PKA)
protein kinase A(pKA)
phosphorylates two enzymes: glycogen phosphorylase kinase b and glycogen synthase
in muscle, activated by increase in Ca
Pi and AMP concentrations
increase sharply and rapidly at the onset of vigorous physical activity.
start of moderately intense steady state exercise
rate of lactate formation is highest, then slowly decreases
liver cell glucose is ↑
no need to break down liver glycogen
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