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AP classroom period 7 study
Terms in this set (30)
"Hetch Hetchy Valley, far from being a plain, common, rock-bound meadow, as many who have not seen it seem to suppose, is a grand landscape garden, one of Nature's rarest and most precious mountain temples. . . . The sublime rocks of its walls seem to glow with life, whether leaning back in repose or standing erect in thoughtful attitudes, giving welcome to storms and calms alike, their brows in the sky, their feet set in the groves and gay flowery meadows, while birds, bees, and butterflies help the river and waterfalls to stir all the air into music. . . .
"This most precious and sublime feature of the Yosemite National Park, one of the greatest of all our natural resources for the uplifting joy and peace and health of the people, is in danger of being dammed and made into a reservoir to help supply San Francisco with water and light, thus flooding it from wall to wall and burying its gardens and groves one or two hundred feet deep. This grossly destructive commercial scheme has long been planned and urged . . . because of the comparative cheapness of the dam. . . .
"That anyone would try to destroy [Hetch Hetchy Valley] seems incredible; but sad experience shows that there are people good enough and bad enough for anything. The proponents of the dam scheme bring forward a lot of bad arguments to prove that the only righteous thing to do with the people's parks is to destroy them bit by bit as they are able."
John Muir, The Yosemite, published in 1912
Which of the following arguments could best be supported by the purpose of the excerpt?
Reformers encouraged the more active protection of natural resources.
Which of the following generalizations can be supported by the information provided in the map above?
Frontier life tended to promote the acceptance of greater political equality for women.
"We demand a graduated income tax. . . . Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads. . . . The land, including all the natural sources of wealth, is the heritage of the people, and should not be monopolized for speculative purposes, and alien ownership of land should be prohibited.... [W]e demand a free ballot and a fair count . . . to every legal voter.... [W]e favor a constitutional provision limiting the office of President and Vice-President to one term, and providing for the election of Senators of the United States by a direct vote of the people."
People's (Populist) Party platform, 1892
The ideas of the Populist Party, as expressed in the excerpt, had the most in common with the ideas of the
"Now, we can see a new world coming into view....In the words of Winston Churchill, a world order in which 'the principles of justice and fair play protect the weak against the strong....' A world where the United Nations...is poised to fulfill the historic vision of its founders. A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations. The Gulf War put this new world to its first test. And my fellow Americans, we passed that test."
President George H. W. Bush, address to Congress, March 6, 1991
The principles on human rights articulated by President Bush are most similar to
the ideas expressed by President Woodrow Wilson during and after the First World War
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine did which of the following?
Declared the United States to be the "policeman" of the Western Hemisphere.
W. E. B. Du Bois differed in philosophy from Booker T. Washington in that Du Bois believed
African Americans should pursue immediate and full equality
The leaders of the Progressive movement were primarily
middle-class reformers concerned with urban and consumer issues
"We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona."
The message above had which of the following effects?
It pushed the United States closer to participation in the First World War.
"The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. . . . The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of proximity and degree. When a nation is at war, many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight, and that no Court could regard them as protected by any constitutional right."
Majority opinion of the United States Supreme Court in Schenck v. United States, 1919
The restrictions imposed by the Schenck decision most directly contradicted which of the following earlier developments in the United States?
Protection of liberties through the adoption of the Bill of Rights in 1791
The ideology that supported the trend depicted in the map is most similar to the ideology that supported which of the following?
Involvement in the Spanish-American War
In the period 1890-1915, all of the following were generally true about African Americans EXCEPT:
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) endorsed the Back-to-Africa movement.
"We realize that certain bodies of men, who do not believe in the basic principles of our Republic, having taken advantage of American hospitality to secure residence within our territory, have brought into organization a large number of committees and associations whose avowed purpose it is to destroy our Government (using force if necessary) and to place the country under the domination of some such self-constituted commission of Socialists or Bolshevists as has brought anarchy and misery upon Russia.
"To nullify the pernicious influence of these enemies of the Republic, we, the undersigned, herewith declare and take oath that we hold ourselves ready to answer any call to defend our country against any and all attempts to change our Government by usurpation or by force. We seek for this pledge the widest publicity and urge all citizens, irrespective of sex, age, creed, or race, who believe as we do in the importance of maintaining American principles, to join us in this pledge.
"We further declare our purpose to do our utmost to secure for those who come to our country from foreign lands a clearer and nobler sense of citizenship than they have heretofore realized; and to develop these new residents into understanding American citizens, to emphasize to them the value of the great privilege that is within their reach of securing American citizenship, and to secure their co-operation in combating the pernicious propaganda which aims to undermine the Government."
"Petition of the National Security League," 1923
Which of the following most directly refutes the argument presented in the third paragraph of the excerpt?
Nativist campaigns led to the passage of quotas that restricted immigration from Europe and Asia.
"As the early years at Hull House show, female participation in that area of reform grew out of a set of needs and values peculiar to middle-class women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Settlement workers did not set out to become reformers. They were rather women trying to fulfill existing social expectations for self-sacrificing female service while at the same time satisfying their need for public recognition, authority, and independence. In the process of attempting to weave together a life of service and professional accomplishment, they became reformers as the wider world defined them."
— Robyn Muncy, historian, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890-1935, published in 1991
Which of the following was the most direct effect of the trend described in the excerpt?
The development of the Progressive movement to address social problems associated with industrial society
The poster above advertising a 1913 labor union pageant was designed to do which of the following?
Portray the strikers as the heroic champions of workers and ordinary people
"Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power."
The foreign policy statement above came to be known as
the Roosevelt Corollary
"I believe, we shall find arguments in favor of the retention of the Philippines as possessions of great value and a source of great profit to the people of the United States which cannot be overthrown. First, as to the islands themselves. They are over a hundred thousand square miles in extent, and are of the greatest richness and fertility. From these islands . . . there is no tropical product which cannot be raised in abundance. . . .
"A much more important point is to be found in the markets which they furnish. The total value of exports and imports for 1896 amounted in round numbers to $29,000,000. . . . There can be no doubt that the islands in our peaceful possession would take from us a very large proportion of their imports. . . . With the development of the islands and the increase of commerce and of business activity the consumption of foreign imports would rapidly advance, and of this increase we should reap the chief benefit. . . .
". . . Manila, with its magnificent bay, is the prize and the pearl of the East. In our hands it will become one of the greatest distributing points, one of the richest emporiums of the world's commerce. Rich in itself, with all its fertile islands behind it, it will . . . enable American enterprise and intelligence to take a master share in all the trade of the Orient! We have been told that arguments like these are sordid. Sordid indeed! . . . A policy which proposes to open wider markets to the people of the United States . . . seems to me a great and noble policy."
Henry Cabot Lodge, senator, speech to the United States Senate, 1900
Which of the following best explains Lodge's point of view on markets in the excerpt?
Many Americans believed that acquiring island territories would encourage economic development.
"The Negro race, like all races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men. The problem of education, then, among Negroes must first of all deal with the Talented Tenth; it is the problem of developing the Best of this race that they may guide the Mass away from the contamination and death of the Worst, in their own and other races. Now the training of men is a difficult and intricate task. Its technique is a matter for educational experts, but its object is for the vision of seers. If we make money the object of man-training, we shall develop money-makers but not necessarily men; if we make technical skill the object of education, we may possess artisans but not, in nature, men. Men we shall have only as we make manhood the object of the work of the schools—intelligence, broad sympathy, knowledge of the world that was and is, and of the relation of men to it."
W. E. B. Du Bois, "The Talented Tenth," 1903
The ideas expressed in the excerpt most directly contributed to the
emergence of organizations pursuing equality for African Americans
Which of the following emerged during the Progressive Era as the most influential advocate of full political, economic, and social equality for Black Americans?
W. E. B. Du Bois
The cartoon above is a commentary on late-nineteenth-century
The purpose of the Liberty Loan Campaign illustrated in the drawing above was to
finance American involvement in the First World War
Many anti-imperialists opposed the annexation of the Philippines in 1898 because they believed that
United States colonialism in the Philippines was incompatible with the American belief in self-determination
Wilson's Fourteen Points incorporated all of the following EXCEPT
recognition of Allied economic and territorial agreements made during the war
"Who has registered the knowledge or approval of the American people of the course this Congress is called upon in declaring war upon Germany? Submit the question to the people, you who support it. You who support it dare not do it, for you know that by a vote of more than ten to one the American people as a body would register their declaration against it.
"I venture to say that the response which the German people have made to the demands of this war shows that it has a degree of popular support which the war upon which we are entering has not and never will have among our people. The espionage bills, the conscription bills, and other forcible military measures . . . [are] proof that those responsible for this war fear that it has no popular support. . . .
"It was our absolute right as a neutral [power] to ship food to the people of Germany. That is a position that we have fought for through all of our history. . . .
"The only reason why we have not suffered the sacrifice of just as many ships and just as many lives from the violation of our rights by the war zone and the submarine mines of Great Britain as we have through the unlawful acts of Germany in making her war zone in violation of our neutral rights is simply because we have submitted to Great Britain's dictation. . . . We have not only a legal but a moral responsibility for the position in which Germany has been placed . . . . By suspending the rule [of law] with respect to neutral rights in Great Britain's case, we have been actively aiding her in starving the civil population of Germany. We have helped to drive Germany into a corner, her back to the wall, to fight with what weapons she can lay her hands on to prevent the starving of her women and children, her old men and babes."
Senator Robert La Follette, speech in the United States Senate, 1917
Which of the following contexts helps to explain the debate in which La Follette was participating in the excerpt?
International conflict led to disagreements over the role of the United States in the world.
Between 1890 and 1910, the United States most strongly pursued a foreign policy promoting
commercial involvement in both Latin America and eastern Asia
bringing order to the Philippines, our soldiers added a new page to the honor-roll of American history, and they incalculably benefited the islanders themselves. . . . [T]he islands now enjoy a peace and liberty of which they have hitherto never even dreamed. But this peace and liberty under the law must be supplemented by material, by industrial development. Every encouragement should be given to their commercial development, to the introduction of American industries and products; not merely because this will be a good thing for our people, but infinitely more because it will be of incalculable benefit to the people of the Philippines.
"We shall make mistakes; and if we let these mistakes frighten us from our work we shall show ourselves weaklings. . . . We committed plenty of blunders . . . in our dealings with the Indians. But who does not admit at the present day that we were right in wresting from barbarism and adding to civilization the territory out of which we have made these beautiful [United] States? And now we are civilizing the Indian and putting him on a level to which he could never have attained under the old conditions.
". . . [W]e have always in the end come out victorious because we have refused to be daunted by blunders and defeats. . . . We gird [ourselves] as a nation, with the stern purpose to play our part manfully in winning the ultimate triumph; . . . and with unfaltering steps tread the rough road of endeavor."
Theodore Roosevelt, "National Duties," address given at the Minnesota State Fair, September 1901
Which of the following best explains a conclusion about United States foreign policy in the early 1900s supported by the point of view expressed in the excerpt?
Political leaders continued to promote the earlier idea of predestined national expansion.
"We believe that the Negro should adopt every means to protect himself against barbarous practices inflicted upon him because of color.
"We believe in the freedom of Africa for the Negro people of the world, and by the principle of Europe for the Europeans and Asia for the Asiatics, we also demand Africa for the Africans at home and abroad....
"We strongly condemn the cupidity of those nations of the world who, by open aggression or secret schemes, have seized the territories and inexhaustible natural wealth of Africa, and we place on record our most solemn determination to reclaim the treasures and possession of the vast continent of our forefathers."
Marcus Garvey, Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World, adopted at the first convention of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), August 1920
The ideas expressed in Garvey's declaration drew the most significant support from which of the following?
Participants in the Great Migration
All of the following contributed to the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment legislating Prohibition in 1919 EXCEPT
the high death toll from alcohol-related automobile accidents
"If we do not follow the most scientific approved methods, the most modern discoveries of how to conserve and propagate and renew wherever possible those resources which Nature in her providence has given to man for his use but not abuse, the time will come when the world will not be able to support life, and then we shall have no need of conservation of health, strength, or vital force because we must have the things to support life or everything else is useless.... [D]o not forget that the conservation of life itself must be built on the solid foundation of conservation of natural resources, or it will be a house built upon the sands that will be washed away."
Marion Crocker, General Federation of Women's Clubs, 1912
Based on the excerpt, Marion Crocker was most likely
a Progressive Era reformer
"Article X says that every member of the League, and that means every great fighting power in the world, ... solemnly engages to respect and preserve ... the territorial integrity and existing political independence of the other members of the League. If you do that, you have absolutely stopped ambitious and aggressive war."
Woodrow Wilson's statement above was made in justification of his
refusal to accept the "reservations" proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge in the Senate debate over ratification of the Treaty of Versailles
The cartoon above portrays President Wilson trying to
arouse public support for the Treaty of Versailles
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