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AP classroom period 7 study

Terms in this set (30)

"Hetch Hetchy Valley, far from being a plain, common, rock-bound meadow, as many who have not seen it seem to suppose, is a grand landscape garden, one of Nature's rarest and most precious mountain temples. . . . The sublime rocks of its walls seem to glow with life, whether leaning back in repose or standing erect in thoughtful attitudes, giving welcome to storms and calms alike, their brows in the sky, their feet set in the groves and gay flowery meadows, while birds, bees, and butterflies help the river and waterfalls to stir all the air into music. . . .
"This most precious and sublime feature of the Yosemite National Park, one of the greatest of all our natural resources for the uplifting joy and peace and health of the people, is in danger of being dammed and made into a reservoir to help supply San Francisco with water and light, thus flooding it from wall to wall and burying its gardens and groves one or two hundred feet deep. This grossly destructive commercial scheme has long been planned and urged . . . because of the comparative cheapness of the dam. . . .
"That anyone would try to destroy [Hetch Hetchy Valley] seems incredible; but sad experience shows that there are people good enough and bad enough for anything. The proponents of the dam scheme bring forward a lot of bad arguments to prove that the only righteous thing to do with the people's parks is to destroy them bit by bit as they are able."
John Muir, The Yosemite, published in 1912
Which of the following arguments could best be supported by the purpose of the excerpt?
"We realize that certain bodies of men, who do not believe in the basic principles of our Republic, having taken advantage of American hospitality to secure residence within our territory, have brought into organization a large number of committees and associations whose avowed purpose it is to destroy our Government (using force if necessary) and to place the country under the domination of some such self-constituted commission of Socialists or Bolshevists as has brought anarchy and misery upon Russia.
"To nullify the pernicious influence of these enemies of the Republic, we, the undersigned, herewith declare and take oath that we hold ourselves ready to answer any call to defend our country against any and all attempts to change our Government by usurpation or by force. We seek for this pledge the widest publicity and urge all citizens, irrespective of sex, age, creed, or race, who believe as we do in the importance of maintaining American principles, to join us in this pledge.
"We further declare our purpose to do our utmost to secure for those who come to our country from foreign lands a clearer and nobler sense of citizenship than they have heretofore realized; and to develop these new residents into understanding American citizens, to emphasize to them the value of the great privilege that is within their reach of securing American citizenship, and to secure their co-operation in combating the pernicious propaganda which aims to undermine the Government."
"Petition of the National Security League," 1923
Which of the following most directly refutes the argument presented in the third paragraph of the excerpt?
"I believe, we shall find arguments in favor of the retention of the Philippines as possessions of great value and a source of great profit to the people of the United States which cannot be overthrown. First, as to the islands themselves. They are over a hundred thousand square miles in extent, and are of the greatest richness and fertility. From these islands . . . there is no tropical product which cannot be raised in abundance. . . .
"A much more important point is to be found in the markets which they furnish. The total value of exports and imports for 1896 amounted in round numbers to $29,000,000. . . . There can be no doubt that the islands in our peaceful possession would take from us a very large proportion of their imports. . . . With the development of the islands and the increase of commerce and of business activity the consumption of foreign imports would rapidly advance, and of this increase we should reap the chief benefit. . . .
". . . Manila, with its magnificent bay, is the prize and the pearl of the East. In our hands it will become one of the greatest distributing points, one of the richest emporiums of the world's commerce. Rich in itself, with all its fertile islands behind it, it will . . . enable American enterprise and intelligence to take a master share in all the trade of the Orient! We have been told that arguments like these are sordid. Sordid indeed! . . . A policy which proposes to open wider markets to the people of the United States . . . seems to me a great and noble policy."
Henry Cabot Lodge, senator, speech to the United States Senate, 1900
Which of the following best explains Lodge's point of view on markets in the excerpt?
"Who has registered the knowledge or approval of the American people of the course this Congress is called upon in declaring war upon Germany? Submit the question to the people, you who support it. You who support it dare not do it, for you know that by a vote of more than ten to one the American people as a body would register their declaration against it.
"I venture to say that the response which the German people have made to the demands of this war shows that it has a degree of popular support which the war upon which we are entering has not and never will have among our people. The espionage bills, the conscription bills, and other forcible military measures . . . [are] proof that those responsible for this war fear that it has no popular support. . . .
"It was our absolute right as a neutral [power] to ship food to the people of Germany. That is a position that we have fought for through all of our history. . . .
"The only reason why we have not suffered the sacrifice of just as many ships and just as many lives from the violation of our rights by the war zone and the submarine mines of Great Britain as we have through the unlawful acts of Germany in making her war zone in violation of our neutral rights is simply because we have submitted to Great Britain's dictation. . . . We have not only a legal but a moral responsibility for the position in which Germany has been placed . . . . By suspending the rule [of law] with respect to neutral rights in Great Britain's case, we have been actively aiding her in starving the civil population of Germany. We have helped to drive Germany into a corner, her back to the wall, to fight with what weapons she can lay her hands on to prevent the starving of her women and children, her old men and babes."
Senator Robert La Follette, speech in the United States Senate, 1917
Which of the following contexts helps to explain the debate in which La Follette was participating in the excerpt?
bringing order to the Philippines, our soldiers added a new page to the honor-roll of American history, and they incalculably benefited the islanders themselves. . . . [T]he islands now enjoy a peace and liberty of which they have hitherto never even dreamed. But this peace and liberty under the law must be supplemented by material, by industrial development. Every encouragement should be given to their commercial development, to the introduction of American industries and products; not merely because this will be a good thing for our people, but infinitely more because it will be of incalculable benefit to the people of the Philippines.
"We shall make mistakes; and if we let these mistakes frighten us from our work we shall show ourselves weaklings. . . . We committed plenty of blunders . . . in our dealings with the Indians. But who does not admit at the present day that we were right in wresting from barbarism and adding to civilization the territory out of which we have made these beautiful [United] States? And now we are civilizing the Indian and putting him on a level to which he could never have attained under the old conditions.
". . . [W]e have always in the end come out victorious because we have refused to be daunted by blunders and defeats. . . . We gird [ourselves] as a nation, with the stern purpose to play our part manfully in winning the ultimate triumph; . . . and with unfaltering steps tread the rough road of endeavor."
Theodore Roosevelt, "National Duties," address given at the Minnesota State Fair, September 1901
Which of the following best explains a conclusion about United States foreign policy in the early 1900s supported by the point of view expressed in the excerpt?