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WCH Final Exam Review

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Renaissance
meaning "rebirth". it was a time of great intellectual and artistic creativity. It was a recovery from the dark ages and plague. The period lasted 300 years. Individual achievement was very important.
Cosimo de Medici
Father of the powerful banking family. He was the wealthiest European of his time. He was dictator of Florence for 30 years.
Humanism
An intellectual movement taht focused on human potential and achievements. It said that people could enjoy life without offending God.
Vernacular
Native language. The common language of the people. Latin was the vernacular of the time.
Francesco Petrarch
one of the earliest and most influencial humanists. some have called him the father of renaissance humanism. He wrote a lot of poems, mainly about a mysterious woman named Laura.
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote THE PRINCE which examines the imperfect conduct of human beings
The Praise of Folly
Erasmus's famous work that poked fun at merchants, lovers, scholars, and priests.
95 Theses
Luther's response to Tetzel selling indulgences that "will put you in heaven". He posted this on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg.
Printing Press
Johann Gutenberg's invention that made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply.
Edict of Worms
An imperial order that declared Luther an outlaw and heretic. No one was allowed to give him food or shelter. Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony disobeyed the emperor and let him stay in his castle.
Reformation
a movement for religious reform.
Catholic Reformation
a movement that helped Catholics to remain loyal
Council of Trent
Council where bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines
Motives for Exploration
God, glory, gold.
Factors that encouraged exploration
1.desire for new sources of wealth 2.desire to spread christianity 3.the ability to use new technology
Prince Henry the navigator
the most enthusiastic explorer.he opened a school for exploration called Sagres.
Bartholomeu Dias
a captain that reached the most southern tip of africa. He wanted to serve God and his majesty
Vasco de Gama
He found a direct sea route to India
Treaty of Tordesillas
declared the line of demarcation.
John Cabot
Explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England
Amerigo Vespucci
the first to say "this is a new world". america was named after him.
Ferdinand Magellan
his crew was the first to circumnavigate, but he didnt make it.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Effects of Slave Trade
many slaves died on the journey, it deprived Africa of their strong young men and women
Act of Supremacy
This made Queen Elizabeth I the supreme power in church and state
Armada
fleet of warships
Henry of Navarre
Became king. He was a Huguenot but realized a Protestant King would never be accepted in France so he converted to Catholicism. He issued the edict of nantes.
thirty years war
"last of the religious wars" it was a battle between France and Spain for European leadership. The peace of westphalia officially ended the war.
Toleration act
granted Puritans the right of free public worship
the bill of rights
the first ten ammendments of the consitution
baroque period
an artistic style of the 17th century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements. it arouses emotions by dramatic effects.
Shakespeare
The most famous dramatist he was "a complete man of theatre" An english,playwright, actor, and shareholder.
Thomas Hobbes
He wrote Leviathan to deal with disorder. He made a social contract called "that great Leviathan to which we owe our peace and defense"
John Locke
He wrote a political work called "Two Treaties of Government" He had ideas that there were problems in the state of nature.
Suleyman The Magnificant
He reigned as leader of the Ottoman Empire. He excecuted his two sons due to his suspicion of treason.He ruled when the Empire was at its high point, but also the beginning ofits decline
Contribution of Ottoman Empire
Architecture
Nichola Copernicus
He that believed the sun was at the center of the universe (heliocentric model). He believed that the earth rotated on its axis once a day and aroudn the sun once a year.
Johannes Kepler
He confirmed the heliocentric view. He said that the orbit around the sun was elliptical.
Galileo Galilei
He observed the heavens using a microscope. He found heavenly bodies composed of materials. The church ordered him to stop teaching his beliefs because they contradicted the Bible.
Isaac Newton
The greatest genious of the Scientific Revolution. He wrote the Principia and discussed the Universal law of gravitation. He also discussed the three laws of motion.
Rene Descartes
He came up with the two principles of reason: "I think therefore I am" and the seperation of mind and matter. He was the father of modern rationalism.
Francis Bacon
Developed the scientific method. He used inductive reasoning.
Montesquieu
He came from the French nobility. He wrote THe Spirirt of the Laws, which was a study of governments in which he tried to use the scientific method to find the natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings.
Voltarie
The greatest figure of the Enlightenment. He was especially known for his critiscm of Christianity and his strong belief in religious toleration. He wrote the Treatise on Toleration.
Diderot
His most famous contribution to the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia. The purpose was the "change general way of thinking"
Adam Smith
He had the best statement of laissez faire in The Wealth of Nations.
National Assembly
Renamed this from the Third estate.
Tennis Court Oath
An oath saying that the Third Estate deputies swore that they would continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
This was inspired by the American Declaration fo Independence. It proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, access to public office based on talent, and an end to exemptions from taxation.
Sans- Culottes
Ordinary patriots without fine clothes. they changed voting rights to universal male
Louis XVI
He refused to accept the National Assembly's decrees on the obolition of feudalism and the Declaration of Rights..
Robespierre
He is well known for representing the poor and helping those in need. He controlled the Convention. He guillotined Louis XVI as a traitor. He was one of the Jacobin leaders who halted inflation, instituted the Reign of Terror to eliminate the republic's enemies, and prepared for war. His support began to crumble and he was arrested and guillotined.
July 14, 1789
The Storming of the Bastille
George Danton
A newly appointed minister of justice. He led the sans-culottes while they sought revenge on those who had aided the King and reisisted the popular will.
Jean- Paul Marat
A new leader to the people. He published a radical journal called Friend of the People.
The Directory
Ruled with the legislature
Reign of Terror
The National Convention and the Committee of Public safety set in motion an effort that came to be known as this. During its corse, close to 40,000 people were killed.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Dominator of French and European history. He made himself consul for life. He created a new aristocracy. He was the master of Europe. He was exiled to the Island of St.Ella and died there.
Consulate
A government established by France after the overthrow of the Directory with Napolean as its first ruler.
Napoleonic Code
Or Civil Code. It preserved most of the gains of the revolution by recognizing the preinciple of the equality of all citizens before the law, the rights of the individual to choose a profession, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism.
Fall of Napoleon
Napoleon went into Russia where he was captured and sent to elba Island. He was exiled to the Island of St.Ella and died there.
5 factors to Industrial Revolution
Agriculture practices, population growth, ready supply of money, plentiful natural resources, and a supply of markets.
Nationalism
The cultural similarties people share within a country.
Conservatism
Political philosophy, based on tradition and social stability.
King Victor Emmanuel II
The ruler of the Piedmont region. Italians looked to him to unify Italy.
Individualism
The belief in the unigueness of each person.
Frankenstein
An example of romantic literature by Mary Shelley.
Prince Metternich
Leader if tge Congress of Vienna. He was the Austrian foreign minister.
Czar Alexander II
Emancipated the serfs. He made reforms. He was assasinated.
Edgar Allen Poe
Wrote short stories of horror in the US
Charles Darwin
Published On the Origin of Specied By Means of Natural Selection
Long Term Causes of WWI
MAINA: M- militarism A- alliance I- imperialism N- nationalism A- Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
During a parade in Sarajevo. Ferdinand was heir to austrian throne. It was carried out by Gavrilo Princip Black Hand
Schliefflen Plan
First to hold Russia and quickly beat France and then join the 2 armies and beat Russia. They key to success was quickness. It was German's solution to a 2-Front War.
Trenches
Elaborate systems of defense. They were protected by barbed wire, machine-gun nests, and heavy artillery.
British Blockade
Used to make sure Germany could not get any supplies. 750,000 Germasn starved to death from lack of food and fertilizer.
Counter Blockade
Germans used Uboats to fight back. They would fire at any ship entering "warzone". 75,000 people died.
Convoy System
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
Lusitania
A British ship that was sunk by German Forces.
Zimmerman Note
German foreign minister sent telegram to german ambassador in Mexico. This promised Mexico money and New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas.
WIB: War Industry Board
Headed by Bernard Baruch. It regulated all materials needed for the war effort. It encouraged companies to use mass production techniques to increase efficiency. It increased production by 20%.
CPI: committee on public information
Created by Wilson to promote the war domestically while publicizing American war aims abroad.It mobilized the nation's artists.
Treaty of Versailles
This ended WWI.
League of Nations
This was written in intent for no more wars.
Ruhr Valley
France was outrage when Germany announced that they could not pay anoymore so France sent troops to occupy this.
Dawes Plan
This reduced reparation and granted loan payment plan. It blocked problems for 5 years.
Treat of Locarno
Established cooperation between German and French foreign ministers.
Kellog- Briand pact
Pledged to rnounce war as an instrument of national policy.
Great Depression
Economic problem with American stock market crash which then evolved into this.
Weimar Republic
A democratic state, many problems especially economic.
Popular Front
Collective Bargaining came out of this.
Collective Bargaining
nagotiating with the employer
John Maynard Keynes
A British economist that came up with the fact that government goes into deficit spending to save the country.
Deficit Spending
Going into debt and financing a prject to save people
FDR
Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal.
New Deal
A policy of active government intervention
Dictator
A ruler with complete power.
Totalitarian State
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people
Benito Mussolini
"The Leader Ildusae". He wrote against socialist government, played on Italians anger and fear.
Fascism
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Blackshirts
A group of Italians led by Mussolini
Propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
NEP
Created by Lenin. New Economic policy in Soviet Russia to prevent Russia's economy from collapsing
Politburo
Led by Stalin and Trotsky
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
Five-Year plans
Its purpose was th transform Russia overnight. It emphasizes industry. It increased the production of steal and oil. It was BAD for the Soviet Union.
Collectivization
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
Adolf Hitler
From Austria. He had harsh racism for Jews.
Nazi Party
German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war.
Mein Kampf
Adolf Hitler's book
Concentration Camps
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
Enabling Act
Gave hitler power for 4 years
Aryan Race
the pure Germanic race, used by the Nazis to suggest a superior non-Jewish Caucasian typified by height, blonde hair, blue eyes
Heinrich Himmler
Leader of the SS
Nuremberg Laws
Gave laws to Jews. They isolated Jews from German society. e.g. jews had to wear the yellow starof David.
Kristallnacht
"Night of Shattered glass" it started when someone made up that a Jewish boy killed a German. This started a lot of violence.