-Barriers; skin, epithelial tissues, etc.
-Flushing/trapping; tears, mucus, saliva, urine, earwax, sweat
-Toxic conditions: pH (stomach, vaginal tract, urine), bactericidal secretions (sweat, prostatic fluid)
-Due to the vascular response, cells, cytokines, and proteins get into the interstitial space and...
*deliver additional effector molecules to augment killing of invading microorganism and stimulate the acquired immune response against the pathogen
*provide a physical barrier, preventing spread of infection
*prepare the area for healing
-Major cytokines & chemokines involved in inflammation can act in autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner...
*cell derived (common); TNF-alpha/ TGF-beta, Interleukins (ILS)- namely IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12
*circulating (plasma) proteins; complement