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MMC 2000 Exam 2
Terms in this set (226)
Eadweard Muybridge invents a machine for projecting slides onto a distant surface; sparked after doing it for horse riding bet
persistence of vision
Refers to the way our eyes retain images for a split second longer than they actually appear, making a series of quick flashes appear as one continuous picture.
images our eyes gather are retained in the brain for about 1/24 of a second
combined the celluloid roll film with the Kodak camera = camera took 40 photographs a second; made by William Dickson
process of recording images on polished metal plates, usually copper, covered with a thin layer of silver iodide emulsion
A photographic process in which a positive image is made by shining light through a negative image onto a sheet of sensitized paper.
use translucent paper (aka the negative) from which several prints could be made
an early film projection system that served as a kind of peep show in which viewers looked through a hole and saw images moving on a tiny plate
popular in penny arcades and parlors; beginning of commercial motion picture exhibition
a device that both photographed and projected action; developed by the Lumiere brothers
tying together two separate but related shots that take on a new, unified meaning
The first movie houses; admission was one nickel
Ornate, lavish single-screen movie theaters that emerged in the 1910s in the United States
double feature with a B movie
typically a less expensive movie
studios produced their own films, distributed them through their own outlets, and exhibited them in their own theaters
an early tactic of movie studios to control exhibition, involving pressuring theater operators to accept marginal films with no stars in order to get access to films with the most popular stars
practice of requiring exhibitors to rent groups of movies, often inferior, to secure a better one
the practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer
moderates costs; storage of system-operating software on off-site, third-party servers hosted on the internet that offer on-demand for lease access.
green light process
the decision to make the film; promotion professionals say yes or no to a film's production; advertising and marketing before even making the film
opening a movie on a few screens; this can greatly reduce the cost of promotion
corporate independent studio
specialty or niche division of a major studio designed to produce more sophisticated—but less costly—movies
filmmaking characterized by reduced risk taking and more formulaic movies
movies that can be described in one line
an expensive blockbuster around which a studio plans its other releases
movies produced with full intention of producing several sequels
films created to be shown first in traditional movie theaters
movement through which filmmakers using digital video cameras and desktop digital editing programs are finding audiences, for their low-budget features
selling seats at varying prices depending on availability and demand
the sponsor-financing of movies to advance a manufacturer's product line
what were Melies, Porters, and Griffiths contributions to film as a narrative medium?
Melies: first narrative movie; first artist of the cinema
Porter: first to use editing to tell a story; used montage
Griffith: most influential silent film ever made; passion and emotion in films; developed full-length feature films
What was the Motion Picture Patents Company, and how did it influence the content and development of the movie industry?
Founded by Edison, group of 10 companies holding patents to almost all editing and filmmaking equipment. Tried to keep films under 12 minutes but directors moved to California and started making longer motion pictures
What societal, technical, and artistic factors shaped the development of movies before World War II?
World war 1 allowed US movie business to expand into Europe, the talkie (movies with sound) was invented and with it more genres
What are the three component systems of the movie industry?
Production is the making of movies, almost universally using digital technology.
Distribution is supplying movies to television and cable networks, DVD makers, Internet streaming and downloading services, and even to individual viewers.
Exhibition is showing movies in a theater, almost universally using digital technologies.
What are major and corporate independent studios? What is an independent?
Majors: finance films through own business
CIS: produce look and feel of independent films but are owned by a major studio; niche of a major studio to make cheaper, more sophisticated films
Independent: smaller budgets and not attached to big major
What are concept films? Product tie-ins? Product placement?
Movies that can be described in one line
Product tie ins and placement help generate box office sales
What is platform rollout? When and why is it used?
Open a movie on a few screens and hope that critical response and film festival success propel it to do well on actual release
How are digitization and convergence reshaping exhibition? Distribution? Production?
the convergence of film with digital technologies is beginning to reshape production, distribution and exhibition. two factors have combined to encourage the rollout of digital distribution and exhibition.
1. convenience of digital movies
2. growing number of successful shot with digital eqpt
Convergence is reshaping the industry, promising to alter its structure and economics, especially as new distribution models fueled by the Internet and related mobile technologies become even more common than they are now.
What is dynamic pricing? What digital technology makes it possible?
Selling seats at various prices depending on availability and demand
Social media and internet have made it possible
the first audio device permitting reception of wireless voice transmissions
vacuum tube developed by DeForest that became the basic invention for all radio and television
a vacuum tube that improved and amplified wireless signals
in broadcast regulation, the idea that broadcasters serve as the public's trustees or fiduciaries
broadcast spectrum space is limited, so not everyone who wants to broadcast can; those who are granted licenses must accept regulation
defined by Manuel Castells as a set of interconnected nodes without a center
networks all broadcasting identical content from a single distributor
•Delivered larger audiences
•Realized greater advertising revenues
•Hired bigger stars
•Produced better programming
owned and operated; Mutual did not own and operate its own flagship stations
Low power FM (LPFM)
a new class of noncommercial radio stations approved by the FCC in 2000 to give voice to local groups lacking access to the public airwaves; the 10-watt and 100-watt stations broadcast to a small, community-based area
•stations in rural areas; i.e. country station broadcast a religious format for 10 hrs on Sat or Sun
a predetermined sequence of selected records
•income earned from the sale of airtime
the percentage of the total available audience reached
taking away the regulation on the limited number of radio stations one company could own
one person or company owning and managing multiple radio stations in a single market
rerecorded by white artists before it was aired in the 1950s
•songs written specifically to be commercial hits; "written to track" ; producer makes a beat and songwriter generates words that fit that beat
albums more than 18 months old
sale of radio or television content to stations on a market-by-market basis
digital audio radio service (DARS)
direct home or automobile delivery of audio by satellite
terrestrial digital radio
land-based digital radio relying on digital compression technology to simultaneously transmit analog and one or more digital signals using existing spectrum space
digital radio technology that uses digital compression to "shrink" digital and analog signals, allowing both to occupy the same frequency
streaming or downloading of audio files recorded and stored on distant servers
web only radio stations only accessed on the internet
allow simultaneous downloading and access of music
sound went from being preserved as waves to conversion into 1s and 0s logged in millisecond intervals in a computerized translation process
beginning of the internet music revolution; compression software that shrinks audio files to less than a tenth of their original size
Communications hardware device that facilitates the transmission of data.
open source software
freely downloaded, download recorded music
illegal recording or sale of copyrighted material and high-quality recordings
•Bittorrent: file-sharing software allowing anonymous users to create "swarms" of data as they simultaneously download and upload bits of a given piece of content from countless untraceable services
saving streamed media to a file on a personal device to be accessed locally
the exclusive legal right, given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same.
protecting content creator's financial interest in their product
What were the contributions made to radio by Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Reginald Fessenden, and Lee DeForest?
Marconi or Tesla considered Father of Radio. Marconi successfully transmitted wireless signals across the English Channel in 1899 and across The Atlantic in 1901.
Reginald Fessenden invented the liquid barretter, the first audio device permitting the reception of wireless voice transmissions.
Lee DeForest invented the audion tube, a vacuum tube that improved and amplified wireless signals. saw radio as a means of broadcasting.
How do the Radio Acts of 1910, 1912, and 1927 relate to the Communications Act of 1934?
Radio Act of 1910: wireless ship act, requiring that all ships using us ports and carrying more than 50 passengers have a working wireless and operator
1912: strengthened rules regarding shipboard wireless but also required that wireless operators be licensed by the secretary of commerce and labor
1927: use airwaves but not own them. broadcasters were caretakers of the airwaves. when a license is awarded, the standard of evaluation would be the public interest, convenience, or necessity.paved way for Comm Act, replaced 1927. Frc gave way to FCC which still regulates today
What were the five defining characteristics of the American broadcasting system just before it entered the golden age of radio?
-radio broadcasters were private, commercially owned enterprises rather than government operations
-government regulation was based on the public interest
-stations were licensed tp serve specific localities, but national networks programmed the most lucrative hours with the largest audiences
-entertainment and information were the basic broadcast content
-advertising formed the basis of financial support for broadcasting
How did World War II and the introduction of television change radio and recorded music?
radio used to sell war bonds, used to boost nation's morale, increased desire for news. new recording techniques were founded for music and other things.radio regained licensing when war ended. national radio advertising income dipped when tv entered the scene. had to find new functions in order to survive.
What does it mean to say that radio is local, fragmented, specialized, personal, and mobile?
attracts local audience, ad rates run lower, local advertisers can afford to pay for it on the radio, increases local flavor.fragmented: widely distributed, many stations serving many areas specialized: specific audience of particular interestpersonal: listen to radio alonemobile: listen anywhere, anytime
What are catalog albums?
albums more than 18 months old.
How have cable and satellite affected the radio and recording industries? Computers and digitization?
cable/satellite: look of concerts has changed, radio-recording industry relationship has changed. aided rebirth of radio networks. satellite devices offer radio through tv. digital audio radio service, syndicationcomputers, digitization: easier access
Is the size of radio's audience in ascendance or in decline? Why?
audience size remained constant, but time spent listening has fallen. time spent listening among young people is in decline.
What is streaming audio?
continuously feeds an audio file to your browser so you avoid having to wait for the entire file to download completely before listening to it.
What is P2P technology? Stream ripping?
peer-to-peer software that permits direct internet based communication or collaboration between two or more personal computers. stream ripping is saving streamed media to a file on a personal device to be accessed locally.
first workable device for generating electrical signals suitable for the transmission of a scene
Short for "picture element" it is the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image.
first practical television camera tube, developed in 1923
improved picture tube developed by Zworykin for RCA
copper-clad aluminum wire encased in plastic foam insulation, covered by an aluminum outer conductor, and then sheathed in plastic
audio and video transmitting system in which super-high-frequency signals are sent from land-based point to land-based point
spot commercial sales
in broadcasting, selling individual advertising spots on a given program to a wide variety of advertisers
Global Television Audience Metering meter (GTAM meter)
video ratings technology that will actively and passively measure viewing across all platforms
watching television on our own schedules, not the programmer's
TV rating of live plus seven days of viewing
measure of viewing of commercials that appear in a specific program within 3 days of its premiere telecast
the percentage of people listening to radio or of homes using television tuned in to a given piece of programming
Community Antenna Television (CATV)
outmoded name for early cable television
importation of distant signals
delivery of distant television signals by cable television for the purpose of improving reception
1962 law requiring all television sets imported into or manufactured in the United States to be equipped with both VHF and UHF receivers
expression coined by FCC chair Newton Minow in 1961 to describe television content
when local affiliates carry a network's program
fee paid by a local broadcast station for the right to be a network's affiliate
money a local cable operation pays to a broadcast station to carry its signal
broadcast industry term for syndicated content that originally aired on a network
a sample episode of a proposed television program
agreement between a television producer and network that guarantees that the network will order at least a pilot or pay a penalty
original programming produced specifically for the syndicated television market
broadcasting a syndicated television show at the same time five nights a week
cable television channels offered to viewers for a fee above the cost of their basic subscription
signals carried by light beams over glass fibers
groupings of channels made available by a cable or satellite provider to subscribers at varying prices
expanded basic cable
in cable television, a second, somewhat more expensive level of subscription
Multiple system operators (MSOs)
a company owning several different cable television operations
a la carte pricing
charging cable subscribers by the channel, not for tiers
early experiments with over-the-air pay television
canceling or forgoing a cable TV subscription or landline telephone connection in favor of alternative Internet-based or wireless service
never had cable so there's no cord to cut
television delivery without the involvement of an MSO
homes with sets but receive neither over-the-air nor cable/satellite television
taping a show on a VCR for later viewing
fast-forwarding through commercials on a program recorded earlier
digital video disc (DVD)
digital recording and playback player and disc, fastest-growing consumer electronic product in history
digital video recorder (DVR)
video recording device attached to a television, which gives viewers significant control over content
a communication channel's information-carrying capacity
a channel with broad information-carrying capacity
digital cable television
delivery of digital video images and other information to subscribers' homes
video on demand
service allowing television viewers to access pay-per-view movies and other content that can be watched whenever they want
delivering television, VOD, audio, high-speed Internet access, long-distance and local phone service, multiple phone lines, and fax via cable
What is the importance of each of the following to the history of television: Paul Nipkow, John Logie Baird, Vladimir Zworykin, Philo Farnsworth, and Newton Minow?
Paul Nipkow: a Russian scientist living in Berlin, developed the first workable device for generating electrical signals suitable for the transmission of a scene that people could see- (BLANK) disc: rotating scanning disc spinning in front of a photoelectric cell
John Logie Baird: British inventor who transmitted moving images using a mechanical disc across the Atlantic Ocean in 1928
Vladimir Zworykin: an immigrant living near Pittsburgh and working for Westinghouse, demonstrated his iconoscope tube, the first practical television camera tube
Philo Farnsworth: at age 20, made is first public demonstration of his improved electronic television system, of film clips of a prize fight, scenes from a Mary Pickford movie, and other graphic images-RCA paid him royalties for the use of his patents
Newton Minow: John F. Kennedy's FCC chair, spoke to the National Association of Broadcasters at the 1961 convention, who confronted broadcasters about vast wastelands
What was the impact on television of the quiz show scandal, I Love Lucy, McCarthyism, and the Nielsen ratings
I Love Lucy: The way that commercials were run on tv changed, tv shows started being pretaped and went to hollywood
McCarthyism: tv was used for more than just entertainment but also for news
Nielson ratings: we could now see how popular shows were
How are the ratings taken? What are some complaints about the ratings system?
A certain number of households are chosen to represent the American people and a meter which actively and passively measures what people are watching sends the info via internet to Nielsen
Complaints are people want a 7 day performance recording, it's worthless
How does a program typically make it to the air? How does syndication figure in this process?
Companies receive about 4,000 proposals a year, make 90 pilots, and 20-30 get chosen to keep filmingAfter running for awhile companies will sell the show and earn money in the syndication process (keep selling the show for a certain number of episodes and make money but no effort put in)
How have cable, VCR, DVD, DVR, and DBS affected the networks?
People can now watch tv on their own time, and don't have to tune in when a show airs to watch it. They can also buy or rent series years after they have aired and not pay attention to the network at all
What are some of the changes in television wrought by cable?
Viewing of cable networks exceed that of regular networks every year since 2002 and there are less regulations on cable channels so networks can expand content
Explain the difference between basic cable, expanded basic cable, premium cable, pay-per-view, à la carte pricing, and skinny bundles.
Basic cable: broadcast stations and local channels
Expanded basic cable: same as above plus some more broad appeal channels
Premium cable: movie channels with sports and special events or pay per view
Pay per view: choose from a menu and pay for what you want then
A la carte pricing: paying channel by channel
Skinny bundles: paired down collection of the most popular channels for a lower price
What are importation of distant signals, premium cable, and fiber optics? How are they related? What do they have to do with cable's maturity as a medium?
Premium cable: high quality content for a subscription
Fiber optics: transmission of signals by light beams
Importation of distant signals: using wires to provide improved reception and a wider variety of programming
All used to expand beyond the big 4 network
What is OTT, and how does it affect what we see on the screen?
Delivery of video without the involvement of an mso (avoiding a top box)
In what ways can viewers access video on the Internet? Via mobile devices? What kinds of content are available on these platforms?
Viewers can watch tv through streaming services online or through websites like YouTube and they can also do this on their phones. Almost all content is available on these platforms
LED (light-emitting diode)
light-emitting semiconductor manipulated under a display screen
LCD (liquid crystal display)
display surface in which electric currents of varying voltage are passed through liquid crystal, altering the passage of light through that crystal
LAN (local area network)
network connecting two or more computers, usually within the same building
first-person perspective game
video game in which all action is through the eyes of the player
a game involving action taking place interactively on-screen
MUD (multiuser dimension)
online text-based interactive game
video game designed to encourage beneficial physical activity
use of video game skills and conventions to solve real-world problems
streamed online game competition
companies that create video games for existing systems
massively multiplayer online roleplaying games (MMO)
interactive online game where characters and actions are controlled by other players, not the computer; also called virtual worlds games
virtual worlds games
interactive online game where characters and actions are controlled by other players, not the computer; also called Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Games
virtual reality games
through the use of a headset, games that generate an imaginary environment, simulating players' physical presence there
classic games most often played in spurts and accommodated by small-screen devices
an attribute of a website; indicates its ability to hold the attention of a user
video games in which consuming advertising or even spending actual cash allows players to progress in their play
video games produced expressly to serve as brand commercials
primarily online games supporting an idea rather than a product
Who are David Gottlieb and Harry Williams? What were their contributions to the development of pinball?
David Gottlieb: invented first mass-produced arcade game, Baffle Ball 1931 (players had to keep score in their heads)
Harry Williams: invented Contact, first electric pinball game
Pinball was considered gambling. Gottlieb had the answer. games of skill were not gambling. games paid off in additional games rather than cash = not gambling.
How did Pong affect the development of video gaming?
first two-player game. advance of microchip and computer industries was a rapid-fire succession of innovation and development
What makes a video game a video game?
-take place on screen-produce a specific goal/objective-be manipulated directly by a player
What are the most frequently employed platforms for game playing?
Microsoft -Xbox and
What is a third-party publisher?
they provide Microsoft, Nintendo and Sony with more than sales revenue. They naturally want their best games on the most popular systems. better games attract more buyers to the systems that support them.Games may be played on smartphones, tablets and social networking sites
How are movie studios and game developers similar in their efforts to reduce the financial risks involved in creating their products?
1. cable companies and streaming services are on video game consoles
2. Both use hypercommercialism
How does product placement occur in games?
A product used in a game is there forever -- every time the game is played;
Tivo-proof (can't be skipped);*brand's associatin w/a game renders "it's cool"-creates a stronger emotional connection and therefore a more positive association for players to brands
What are the different forms of advergaming?
occurs in 2 ways:- CD-ROM- Internet to either consoles or mobile devicesForms of: brand-specific sites and game sites unaffiliated with a single sponsor but offering brand-based games
What is advocacy gaming?
primarily online games supporting an idea rather than a product
What are the levels of the ESRB rating system?
EC - early childhood - 3+
E - everyone - 6+
E10+ - - 10+
T - teen - 13+
M - mature - 17+
AO - adults only - 18+
a global network of interconnected computers that communicate freely and share and exchange information
a computer that processes data reduced to a binary code
information transformed into a series of digits 1 and 0 for storage and manipulation in computers
common communication rules and languages for computers linked to the internet
computers linking individual personal computer users to the internet
a large central computer to which users are connected by terminals
a relatively large central computer to which users are connected by terminals; not as large as a mainframe computer
user workstations that are connected to larger centralized computers
microcomputer (or personal computer or PC)
small, affordable; because the semiconductor replaced the vacuum tube as the essential information processor in computers- its tiny size, absence of heat and low cost made possible the design and production of PCs (Gates, Jobs, Wozniak)
the software that tells the computer how to work
advanced sound and image capabilities for microcomputers
WAN (wide area network)
network that connects several LANs in different locations
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
company that offers Internet connections at monthly rates depending on the kind and amount of access needed
e-mail (electronic mail)
function of Internet allowing communication via computer with anyone else online, anyplace in the world, with no long-distance fees
unsolicited commercial e-mail
instant messaging (IM)
real-time e-mail, allowing two or more people to communicate instantaneously and in immediate response to one another
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
phone calls transferred in digital packets over the Internet rather than on circuit-switched telephone wires
World Wide Web
a tool that serves as a means of accessing files on computers connected via the Internet
URL (uniform resource locator)
the designation of each file or directory on the host computer connected to the Internet
on the World Wide Web, an identifying name, rather than a site's formal URL, that gives some indication of the nature of a site's content or owner
software programs loaded on personal computers and used to download and view Web files
Web- or Net-search software providing on-screen menus
entryway into a website, containing information and hyperlinks to other material
connection, embedded in Internet or website, allowing instant access to other material in that site as well as to material in other sites
social networking sites
websites that function as online communities of users
dual-factor model of social media use
social media use is motivated by the need for acceptance and the need to belong
idealized virtual identity hypothesis
social media users tend to show idealized characteristics not reflective of who they really are
extended real-life hypothesis
predicts that we use social media to communicate our actual identities
common term used for the teen who overuses social networking to the point of altering sleep and eating habits and isolating himself from peers and family, eventually succumbing general depression
affective forecasting error
discrepancy between the expected and actual emotions generated by Facebook activity
resentfulness of others' social media expressions of happiness
people who have never known a world without the internet
flash mobs (smart mobs)
large, geographically dispersed groups connected only by communications technology, quickly drawn together to perform collective action
the practice of using digital technology to solicit donations from a large number of people for a cause or project
derogatory name of online activism
inaccurate Internet news stories designed to be spread and deceive
in copyright law, instances in which material may be used without permission or payment
the massive electronic collection and distillation of consumer data
consumers requesting that companies do not sell personal data
consumers giving permission to companies to sell personal data
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip
grain-of-sand-sized microchip and antenna embedded in consumer products that transmit a radio signal
augmented reality (AR)
permits users to point phones at things in the real world and be instantly linked to websites containing information about those things superimposed over the screen image
Internet of Things (IoT)
everyday objects have network connectivity, allowing them to send and receive data. i.e. merchants using in store devices to automatically ring up customers, track real time shopping behaviors, tailored offered to customers
electronic coding or masking of information on the Web that can be deciphered only by a recipient with the decrypting key
the series of choices made by a user on the Web
an identifying code added to a computer's hard drive by a visited website
identifying code placed on a computer by a website without permission or notification
granting equal carriage over phone and cable lines to all websites
the widening disparity between communication technology haves and have-nots
the lack of technological access among people of color, people who are poor or disabled, and those in rural communities
the widening disparity in amounts and types of information available to information haves and have-nots
growing differences in knowledge, civic activity, and literacy between better-informed and less-informed Americans
publicly provided low-cost, high-speed internet access
Internet use charged "by the byte"; heavier users pay more, more-modest users pay less
What is the importance of each of these people to the development of the computer: Charles Babbage, John Atanasoff, John Mauchly, and John Presper Eckert?
Babbage- "originator of the computer" designed a "computer" that could conduct algebraic computations using stored memory and punch cards for input and output
Atansoff- "full service" electronic computer
Mauchly and Eckert- introduced ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Intergrator and Calculator) based on Atansoff's work; was big and heavy
What were the contributions of Joseph C. R. Licklider, Paul Baran, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Stephen Wozniak to the development and popularization of the Internet?
Licklider- foresaw linked computers and "home computer consoles"
Baran- protocols, computer languages (any type of computer to communicate with another); instructions embedded in the system would enable "rerouting" if a computer become unavailable
Gates- made Microsoft, with their operating systems no one had to know operating languages to use computers
Jobs and Woz- made Apple 2 (microcomputer); multimedia capabilities (sound and image applications)
What are digital computers, microcomputers, and mainframe computers?
digital- a computer that processes data reduced to a binary code micro (PC)- small, affordable, open to net anytime; uses a microprocessor to handle info mainframe- a large central computer to which users are connected by terminals
What is the dual-factor model of social media use? How does it explain our affinity for social media?
Dual-factor model of social use states that there is a need to belong, our natural desire to associate with other people and gain their acceptance. And the need for self-presentation, is our ongoing effort to shape what others think of us.
Differentiate between the idealized virtual identity and the extended real-life hypotheses of social media use.
The idealized virtual identity argues that social media users tend to show idealized characteristics that do not reflect who they really are. Extended real-life hypothesis is the idea that we use social media to communicate our actual identities.
What are Facebook depression and Facebook envy?
Facebook depression develops when preteens and teens spend a great deal of time on social media sites, such as Facebook, and then begin to exhibit classic symptoms of depression. Facebook envy is resentment toward the happiness of others shown on social media. Fear of missing out is related because it is the fear of others engaging in activities without them
What are the two primary privacy issues for online communication? What are some of the new technological threats?
individual rights to protect their privacy from invasive, intrusive media. 1986 Electronic Communication Privacy Act guarantees the privacy of our email.
What is a blog? How might blogs alter journalism?
regularly updated online journals of commentary, often containing links to their commentary; bloggers constantly and in real time fact-check candidates.
What are some of the arguments supporting the idea that the Internet will be a boost to participatory democracy? What are some of the counterarguments?
recent candidates use the internet a lot; internet use makes younger voters pay more attention to politics battles to keep the net open and free; concentration and conglomeration of the net; economic and commercial forces have rigidly shaped other media (TV, radio) and will do the same with the net
What are the technology and information gaps? What do they have to do with Internet-based virtual democracy? What is the digital divide?
Technology gap is the widening disparity between the communication technology haves and have not. Information gap is when people without the requisite technology will have diminished access to the information it makes available. Technology and information gaps and virtual democracy all have endless battles to keep the internet open and free which is net neutrality. Digital device is the lack of technological access among people of color, the poor, the disabled and those in rural communities
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