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The process of phagocytosis involves the:
ingestion of foreign material or cell debris by leukocytes
Which of the following would be the most likely cause of an iatrogenic disease?
an unwanted effect of a prescribed drug
Warmth & redness related to the inflammatory response results from:
↑ blood flow into the area of the inflammation
A tissue in which the cells vary in size & shape + show ↑ mitotic figures would be called:
Which of the following helps to localize & contain the foreign material during an inflammatory response?
Opportunistic infection may develop when:
member of resident flora migrates & colonizes a new location in the body
Which cells are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response?
localized pocket of infection or purulent exudate, sometimes referred to as pus, in a solid tissue
drugs that ↓ replication of viruses, but they do not kill the virus, and thus are not a cure
programmed cell death; cells self-destruct, appearing to digest themselves enzymatically, and then disintegrate into fragments
necrosis forming a core of cheese-like material consisting of dead macrophages & necrotic tissue
movement of cells towards or away from an area of the body in response to chemical signals
fixation or deformity of a joint shortening of a muscle or scar tissue causing immobility & deformity of a joint or structure
infection in the pleural cavity, may cause adhesions between pleural membranes, restricting ventilation
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Rate at which RBCs settle out of a blood specimen (containing anti-coagulant), an elevation in ESR is a general characteristic of inflammation
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Elevated plasma proteins ↑ rate at which RBCs settle in a blood sample
exudates are thick & sticky & have a ↑ cell & fibrin content. This type of exudate ↑ risk of scar tissue
steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex e.g., cortisol (hydrocortisone), that ↑ blood glucose levels & act to ↓ inflammation in allergic reactions
newly developed, fragile tissue consists of fibroblasts & blood vessels, formed during healing
brown, granular material, resulting from the partial digestion in the stomach of protein in the blood
movement of fluid, electrolytes, O₂ & nutrients out of the capillary at the arteriolar end
cell enzymes specific to certain organs, that differ slightly in structure, but have similar functions
enzymes found in some cells and in body fluids such as tears, sweat, or saliva, which can destroy some microorganisms.
degenerative changes in the walls of large arteries, can ↑incidence of heart attack, strokes, peripheral vascular disease in diabetics
"vulture cells" active in phagocytosis; mature monocytes that have migrated into the tissues from blood
dark-colored (tarry) stool that results from significant bleeding that has occurred higher in the digestive tract
double layer of peritoneum that supports the intestines & conveys blood vessels & nerves to supply the wall of the intestine
obstruction or rupture of capillaries & small arteries resulting in tissue necrosis & ↓ function
blood, small, hidden amounts of blood that are not visible but are detectable on tests of a stool specimen
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
sudden acute type of dyspnea common in patients w/left sided congestive heart failure
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
during sleep the body fluid is redistributed, leading to pulmonary edema & the individual wakes up gasping for air & coughing
process by which neutrophils (a leukocyte) & macrophages, the "vulture cells," randomly engulf & destroy bacteria, cell debris, or foreign matter
destructive enzymes released by neutrophils during an inflammatory response, that breakdown protein into amino acid
exudates are thick, yellow-green in color & contain more leukocytes & cell debris as well as microorganisms. Typically indicated bacterial infection & the exudate is usually referred to as pus.
occurs in damaged tissue in which the cells are capable of mitosis. Damaged tissue is replaced by identical tissue from the proliferation of nearby cells.
takes place when there is extensive tissue damage or the cells are incapable of mitosis. Wound area must be covered & filled in by some form of tissue.
occurs when there is minimal tissue damage, the damaged cells recover, and the tissue returns to normal w/in a short period of time
tissue that fills the gap or defect in tissue (not normal, functional, nor does it contain any specialized structures such as hair follicles or glands)
watery exudate, consists primarily of fluid w/small amounts of protein & WBCs (e.g., allergic reaction from a burn)
channels filled w/blood from 2 sources (branches of the hepatic artery & venous blood from the portal vein)
"fatty diarrhea" marked by frequent, bulky, greasy, loose stools, often w/a foul odor. Common w/malabsorption disorders (Celiac disease and Cystic Fibrosis)
One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to:
determine the best treatment & prognosis
Chemotherapy usually involves a combination of drugs in order to:
↓ adverse effects + be effective in more phases of the cell cycle
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include:
obstruction of a tube or duct + cell necrosis & ulceration
Glucocorticoids are often prescribed during a course of chemotherapy & radiation because:
may ↓ inflammation around the tumor
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma differs from Hodgkin's lymphoma in that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually presents as:
multiple, scattered, enlarged & painless lymph nodes
The most critical adverse effects of chemotherapy & radiation therapy include:
thrombocytopenia & leukopenia
Which of the following is an agent used to treat the anemia that often occurs after chemotherapy?
W/acute leukemias, ↑ # of malignant leukocytes leads to:
↓ hemoglobin, thrombocytopenia, constant bone pain, splenomegaly
A warning sign of possible cancer would be any of the following EXCEPT:
sudden development of fever, nausea, and diarrhea
Which of the following would be significant signs of bronchiectasis?
chronic cough producing large quantities of purulent sputum
What are the early signs & symptoms of myocardial infarction?
persistent chest pain radiating to the left arm, pallor, and rapid, weak pulse
What is the cause of chronic bronchitis?
chronic irritation, inflammation, and infection of the larger airways
Which are predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation?
damaged blood vessel walls, immobility, prosthetic valves
Persistent thick mucus in the broncholes of a child w/cystic fibrosis may cause:
air trapping, atelectasis, repeated infections, irreversible damage to tissue
Why does ventricular fibrillation result in cardiac arrest?
insufficient blood is supplied to the myocardium
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor in coronary artery disease because it:
promotes thrombus formation
What is the most common cause of death immediately following a myocardial infarction?
Which of the following drugs decreases sodium & fluid retention in the body?
Which statement describes a coronary artery bypass procedure?
attaching a section of vein to the coronary artery proximal & distal to the obstruction
What drug is taken in small doses on a continuing basis to ↓ platelet adhesion?
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA or Aspirin)
Which of the following factors greatly improves venous return to the heart during strenuous exercise?
contraction & relaxation of skeletal muscle
What describes the basic pathophysiology of myocardial infarction?
total obstruction of a coronary artery that causes myocardial necrosis
What are early signs & symptoms of infectious rhinitis?
serous nasal discharge, congestion, and sneezing
Factors that may precipitate an angina attack include all of the following except:
walking down stairs
What would be the result of chronic bleeding from gastric carcinoma?
occult blood in the stool & anemia
Which of the following describes the supply of bile following a cholecystectomy?
small amounts of bile are continuously secreted & flow into the duodenum
Pyelonephritis may be distinguished from cystitis by the presence in pyelonephritis of:
urinary casts & flank pain
Which of the following is true of the visceral peritoneum?
It is the outer covering of the stomach & intestines
Which of the following statements applies to bile salts?
they emulsify lipids & lipid-soluble vitamins
Which of the following describes the characteristic lesions of herpes zoster?
painful vesicles along a dermatome or cranial nerve pathway
What is the recommended treatment for insulin shock if the patient remains conscious?
oral administration of concentrated glucose
What is the basic pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?
systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction
Which of the following is characteristic of osteoarthritis?
degeneration of articulating cartilage in the large joints
What is the primary cause of type I diabetes?
destruction of pancreatic cells by an autoimmune reaction
Which of the following statements regarding acute necrotizing fasciitis is true?
infection that rapidly causes extensive tissue necrosis & toxic shock.
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