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A+P 2 Exam #1 Review
ch. 1, 2, 3, 18
Terms in this set (32)
Hypothalamus produces what hormones?
ADH, oxytocin, and regulatory hormones
the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces what hormones?
ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH
the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces what hormones?
release of oxytocin (OXT) and ADH
thyroid gland produces what hormones?
T3, T4, calcitonin
the medulla of the adrenal gland produces which hormones?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
the cortex of the adrenal gland produces which hormones?
cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone, aldosterone, and androgens
the pancreas (pancreatic islets) produce which hormones?
insulin and glucagon
the pineal gland produces what hormone?
the parathyroid glands produce what hormone?
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
direct communication of cells
-exchange of ions and molecules between adjacent cells across gap junctions
-occur between 2 cells of same type
-highly specializes and relatively rare
-uses chemical signals to transfer info from cell to cell within single tissue
-most common form of intercellular communication
-Endocrine cells release chemicals (hormones) into bloodstream
-Alters metabolic activities of many tissues and organs simultaneously
What are target cells?
specific cells that possess receptors needed to bind and "read" hormonal messages
What do hormones do?
-Stimulate synthesis of enzymes or structural proteins
-Increase or decrease rate of synthesis
-Turn existing enzyme or membrane channel "on" or "off"
-Ideal for crisis management
-Occurs across synaptic clefts
-Chemical message is "neurotransmitter"
-Limited to a very specific area
what are the three classes of hormones?
amino acid derivatives, peptide hormones, lipid derivatives
amino acid derivatives
small molecules structurally related to amino acids
derivatives of tyrosine
thyroid hormones and catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
derivatives of tryptophan
Dopamine, serotonin, melatonin
chains of amino acids; most are synthesized as prohormones
what are prohormones?
inactive molecules converted to active hormones before or after they are secreted
a peptide hormone; proteins are more than 200 amino acids long and have carbohydrate side chains (TSH, LH, FSH)
examples of short chain polypeptides
ADH and oxytocin
examples of small proteins
GH and PRL
what are the two groups of lipid derivatives?
eicosanoids and steroid hormones
lipids derived from arachidonic acid; paracrine factors that coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes (such as blood clotting) in extracellular fluids
steroid hormones are derived from
steroid hormones are released by
- the reproductive organs
- the cortex of adrenal glands
why do steroid hormones remain in circulation longer than secreted peptide hormones?
because circulating steroid hormones are bound to specific transport proteins in the plasma
Free hormones remain functional for
less than 1 hour
free hormones are inactivated when
1. diffuse out of bloodstream and bind to receptors on target cells
2. are broken down and absorbed by cells of liver or kidneys
3. are broken down by enzymes in plasma or interstitial fluid
why do thyroid and steroid hormones remain in circulation much longer?
because most are "bound"
-more than 99% become attached to special transport proteins
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