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Microbiology Quiz 2
Terms in this set (63)
_______________ use CO2 as their Carbon source
______________ use reduced and already-formed organic molecules as their carbon source (e.g. Glucose, fatty acids, amino acids)
Bacteria can obtain carbon from molecules that humans can't, for example ___________________ (3)
caffeine, paraffin wax, carbofuran
What are some problems with using CO2 (autotrophs)
CO2 lacks hydrogen, and includes most oxidized form of carbon, so they need other sources for hydrogen and electrons
Organotrophs and lithotrophs differ in how they obtain ________
Organotrophs obtain electrons from
Lithotrophs obtain electrons from
Chemotrophs capture energy from
inorganic or organic molecules (glucose; Hydrogen Sulfide)
Phototrophs capture energy from
Most microorganisms are _________________.
chemoorganoheterotrophs, or photolithoautotrophs
List the macroelements
C, H, O, N, P, S
Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+/Fe3+, Cl- (proteins, carbs, lipids, nucleic acids)
List the micronutrients (trace elements)
Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Mo2+, Ni2+, Cu2+
What are growth factors
Specific needs of microorganisms that are needed for that specific species' survival
What types of molecules can be imported with simple diffusion?
Small, nonpolar and uncharged, lipid-soluble molecules OR
CO2, O2, H2O, glycerol (slowly)
What types of molecules enter the cell called facilitated diffusion
Large, polar molecules:
Water (aquaporin) and glycerol
Sugars and Amino Acids
What are the types of passive transport?
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
Active transport requires _________ to move molecules ________ the gradient
Primary Active Transport uses ____________, molecules moving into cell (are/are not) modified
ATP Hydrolysis, are not modified
ABC transporter used in primary active transport stands for
Parts of the ABC transporter
4 membrane subunits: 2 hydrophobic subunits creating a channel, and 2 cytoplasmic hydrophilic subunits to hydrolyze ATP, and 1 solute binding protein
Process of Primary Active Transport
Solute binding protein is excreted and goes out to scavenge for solute, binds to solute. Protein associates with channel, releasing solute inside and triggering the ATP hydrolysis to open the channel and allow solute to enter and move across gradient.
Secondary Active Transport uses the potential of a ____________
gradient (usually an ion gradient), usually PMF
Give the overall idea of secondary active transport
When secondary molecule moves with its gradient, energy is released as it approaches equilibrium. This energy is then used to transport the primary substance against its gradient to bring those nutrients into the cell
Group Translocation utilizes _____________________ as its energy source. molecules are ____________
metabolic energy; modified
Give an example of group translocation
Phosphotransferase System (PTS system)
Give the overall process of group translocation
Molecule (such as glucose) associates with the membrane, then is immediately phosphorylated into Glucose-6-Phosphate. PEP is the high-energy source of the phosphate that is passed to the glucose for phosphorylation (IIB-IIC-Glucose).
In gram positive cells, does the peptidoglycan act as a nutrient barrier?
Outer membranes in gram negative cells have 2 nutrient uptake systems. Which are they?
Porins (facilitated diffusion), TonB-dependent transporter system
How many monomers does a Porin have?
3- it's a trimer
Give some identifiers of porins
Passive water-filled pores, trimers, less specific. Small solutes can cross <600 Da (glucose, amino acids)
After solutes enter the periplasm through the porin, how does it cross the inner membrane, and why?
It goes through active transport systems, this is because the nutrients are kept at really low concentrations inside the periplasm. The periplasm always has the lowest concentration of nutrients.
TonB-dependent receptors are very ________ and have a very high ________ for nutrients. They bring in nutrients through ____________
specific, affinity; active transport
Give aspects of TonB-dependent receptor
It's a proton channel that is physically linked to the outer receptor by TonB. PMF is used as the source of energy, causes conformational changes in TonB, which then causes conformational changes in the receptor.
TonB-dependent receptors are not needed in bacteria that live in _____________________ conditions
Bacterial iron-binding proteins
Siderophore called __________________ is secreted and binds to _______. This complex then associates with a _____________ to get into the periplasm. The _____ transporter brings the complex into the cytoplasm, with the help of the binding protein _________.
endochelin; Fe3+; Ton-B dependent receptor; ABC; FepB
Why do organisms need energy to build biomass?
They need to build order from disorder, entropy
What drives anabolic reactions?
Energy and building blocks captured from catabolic reactions (ATP, NADH)
What are ways we can make actual DeltaG negative
1) change temp
2)High concentration of reactants
3) Product concentration kept low by removal
What is syntrophy?
Products made in one organism is used by another organism to keep products low
Lettuce and Tomatoes have complex carbs called _______
What is the only polysaccharide humans can digest?
what does PUL stand for?
polysaccharide utilization loci
What do PULs do?
they code for enzymes that digest polysaccharides
PULs code for enzymes like ______ and ______, which target glycosidic linkages and break xyloglucans into _______
GH54, GH9A, oligosaccharides
What does SusD-like proteins do?
hold in place for sus-c like
What does SusC-like proteins do?
they are the transporter for the broken-down oligosaccharides of xyloglucans
What proteins break the oligosaccharides into monosaccharides?
GH3A, GH43B, GH3B
What does the xyloglucan receptor do?
Signals to the cell that xyloglucans are present, so the cell can excrete enzymes needed to break down xyloglucans and the monosaccharides
How many ATP are produced in aerobic respiration?
How many ATP are produced in anaerobic respiration?
How many ATP are produced by fermentation?
What goes in and comes out of EMP pathway
Glucose goes in; yields 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate
What goes in and comes out of Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway?
Sugar acids or glucose go in; yields 2 pyruvate, 1 ATP, 1 NADH, 1NADPH
What does the PPP produce?
2 NADPH, 1 ATP, biosynthesis
If final electron source is available, pyruvate is oxidized to _________, which enters the __________
Acetyl CoA, CAC
What is the glyoxylate shunt?
a specialized cycle that requires 2 extra CAC enzymes and saves carbons for biosynthesis
Differentiate between NADH and NADPH in structure and function
NADPH is simply NADH with a phosphate group added. Otherwise, they are identical. Functionally, they are both electron carriers, but NADH is used for catabolism and energy capture (electrons to to transport system). NADP+ picks up electrons and takes them to biosynthetic enzymes, serves as electron donor for synthesis of reduced organic molecules. This is anabolic
ATP synthase uses energy from _______ to create ATP
Carbon is more ________ when it has more bonds to heteroatoms in relation to hydrogens.
Carbon is more ____________ when it has more bonds to hydrogens than it does to heteroatoms
What goes in and comes out of the CAC?
Acetyl-CoA goes in, CO2, ATP, NADH, and FADH2 come out
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