Unit 5: Presidency and the Bureaucracy

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Terms in this set (...)

20th amendment
presidential inauguration January 20th, AKA lame duck amendment
22nd amendment
presidents may serve 2 terms or 10 years in office
25th amendment
provides for presidential and vp death and disability situations
Bureaucracy
those charged with enforcing the law, appointed and hired positions
bureaucratic policy making
ability to use enforcement power sometimes results in "quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial" behaviors
cabinet
14 secretaries and the attorney general (and all other designated by Pres) who advise president on specific policy issues
civil service
the permanent professional branches of a government's administration, excluding military and judicial branches and elected politician
Executive Order
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation
executive privilege
The claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president.
Hatch Act
a federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics
independent agencies
Agencies such as the Fed or the FCC that possess significant independence and regulatory powers
inherent powers of the presidency
powers that lie in the presidency without specific authorization
Korematsu v US
During World War II, Presidential Executive Order gave the military authority to exclude citizens of Japanese ancestry from areas deemed critical to national defense. A Japanese man remained in California and violated Civilian Exclusion Order. The Court sided with the government and held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed man's rights.
merit principle
promotion based on efforts and achievements rather than "who you know," important feature of the modern bureaucracy
national security council
key advisors to the president on matters of national security
patronage
one of the key inducements use by political machines. It is a job, promotion, or contract that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone, feature of the old bureaucracy
pocket veto
president ignores a bill and it dies without his veto
Presidential Succession Act
created during the Cold War to create a line to the Presidency, Speaker, Pro Tempore and then Cabinet in order of creation
senatorial courtesy
A tradition under which the Senate will defer to the judgment of a senator of the president's party when determining the suitability of candidates for federal judgeships from the senator's state
US v Nixon
No person is above the law, and the president can't use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence from a trial (thought executive privilege does exist)
Imperial presidency
when the president exceeds his role and takes to more power than the constitution says, example Vietnam war; president never worked with Congress.
bully pulpit
describes the president's power to influence the public due to the sheer influence of the office
Council of Economic Advisors
panel of three noted economists who advise the president of the United States on macroeconomic matters, part of the EOP
signing statement
written comment issued by a President at the time of signing legislation; might be used to merely comment on the bill signed or more controversially state he intends to ignore portions of implement it only in ways he finds constitutional.
divided government
split between the partisan control of the executive and legislative branches
line item veto
the power of an executive to reject individual provisions of a bill; deemed unconstitutional for US pres by Clinton v NY
executive agreement
An agreement made between the President and a foreign government without ratification by the Senate.
pardon
legal forgiveness for a crime, get out of jail free card
inherent powers
powers over and beyond those explicitly granted in the Constitution or reasonably to be implied from express grants, powers that we know an executive has
Executive Office of the Presidency
consists of the immediate staff of the current President of the United States and multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President, greater proximity ot the president and influential on daily decision making
Administrative discretion
Authority given by Congress to the federal bureaucracy to use reasonable judgement in implementing laws.
discretionary authority
The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws.
iron triangle
three-sided, mutually advantageous relationship between members of Congressional Committees, Bureaucrats, and interest groups.
issue networks
alliance of groups that push for policy change, involves multiple groups, agencies and portions of Congress
regulatory agency
governmental body that is created by a legislature to implement and enforce specific laws. An agency has quasi-legislative functions, executive functions, and judicial functions; e.g., FCC
government corporation
a government agency that operates like a business corporation, created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program; e.g., Amtrak
Pendleton Act
federal law established in 1883 that decided that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
Administrative adjudication
Authority given by Congress to the federal bureaucracy to use reasonable judgement when settling disputes involved in the executive of law
spoils system
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.

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