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Templer Bio 4
Terms in this set (93)
the process of development of differences between sexes
have testes in the abdominal, but female genetalia.
Olympic example of AIS
the two female runners were not allowed to compete because they had high level testosterone
people w AIS have a genotype of...?
Y chromosome induces...?
indifferent (neither female or male) gonads to become testes
When does this differentiation occur?
7th week of fertilization
testes produce 2 types of hormones:
androgen & testosterone
the testosterone diffuses into the...?
duct system to form the following internal things:
2. vas deferens
3. seminal vesicles
would produce female structures
androgen acts on the wolffian ducts to form these external structures...
2. prostate gland
genotype of XXY would have what reproductive organ?
tests cause of the Y
If we prevented testosterone from being charred to DHT we would not find a...?
fully developed penis
Female sexual differentiation:
if androgens are absent the Mullerian ducts will...?
develop into uterus, phillopian tubes, oviducts, and portion of the vagina
if no androgen is present the following external structures are created:
reproductive structures for both sexes develop from the same exact tissue
male vs female reproductive organs:
scrotum to labia
penis to clitoris
testes to ovaries
Cowper's glands to Bartholins's glands
if the Y chromosome is present than the fetus will...?
assume male reproductive structures
A person with XX and AGS we will find that...?
she has everything she should have internally, but additionally has male external features.
Will mullerian ducts become internal female reproductive structures in an xx AGS child?
yes, theres nothing different that would prevent this from happening
will wollfian ducts become internal male structure in an xx AGS child?
no theres no testosterone to produce those male structures.
A female with AGS will have...
ovaries ovaduct uterus vagina be fertile with some male external genetalia
(XY) will an individual with AIS have female internal organs other than testes?
No XY females, all they have is testes in the abdomen
3 cylinders of erectile tissue:
corpus spongiosum (urethra passes thru this)
corpora cauernosa (2 of them)
circumcision significantly reduced...?
the incidence of male HIV infection.
circumcision helps women?
yes it helped prevent disease
in 2012 doctors said that?
circumcision benefits outweigh the risks
testosterone and sperm production are under control of what?
LH and FSH
does the scrotum protect the testes?
no, just keeps them cooler than the body temp.
in a male with XY chromosomes and no genetic problems, we would find that...?
all of the above are true:
- his wolffian ducts develop into several structures including the epididymis
- his Mullerian ducts regress (degenerate)
- the hormone dihydrotestosterone induces the formation of the external genitalia including the penis
- his tests produce both testosterone and anti malarian hormone
- labia majora (homologue of...?)
- labia minora- forms protective hood around the clitoris
- clitoris: homologue of the penis
clitoris vs penis (cylinders)
penis has 3
clitoris has 2
Cowper vs Bartholin gland
cowper is male, bartholin is female
ovaries- produce egg and female hormones
fallopian tubes- site of fertilization
uterus- site of implantation
fallopian tubes AKA?
2 female hormones produced in the ovaries?
estrogen and progesterone
3 layers of the uterus:
the vagina extends from the... to the...?
extends from the vaginal office to the cervix
which layer of the uterus sheds during each menstral flow?
4 phases of sexual response:
excitement phase- stimulation thru touching
plateau phase- occurs if arousal continues
orgasmic phase- few seconds which tensions from sexual stimulation is released
resolution phase- returns to unstimulated state
2 things happening in sexual response cycle
muscle tension and vas congestion
which order does sexual response occur?
what phase does erection occur?
study of ductless glands and their secretions called hormones
put the hormones directly into the bloodstream (very specific targets)
study of how the nervous system controls the endocrine system
anterior pituitary gland:
blood vessels connected to the brain (hypothalamus)
anterior pituitary gland makes...?
its own hormones
neurosectory cells located in this part of the brain that produce neurohormones
posterior pituitary gland:
attached to hypothalamus via nerve cells.
stores neurohormones made in the hypothalamus
does the posterior pituitary gland make its own hormones?
Gonadotropin Hormone Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a...?
releasing factor from hypothalamus that controls FSH and LH made in the anterior pituitary gland
FSH and LH:
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
explain negative feedback
think of the furnace and thermostat example
FSH and LH are made where?
in the anterior pituitary gland
what does the posterior pituitary gland do?
stores the hormones
IF john is using anabolic steroids we would find...?
low levels of FSH and LH
the 3 message system:
1. releasing hormone
2. FSH and LH
3. regulate the output for GnRH
Frank is using Viagra. Will this have any influence on his testicular hormone levels?
male reproductive physiology is tonic versus the female which is?
producing sperm constantly
only producing eggs in the menstural cycle.
first menstrual flow (12 to 13 years of age)
termination of menses (51 years of age)
monthly build up and sloughing off of the endometrium
LH and FSH peak when?
at ovulation (mid cycle)
progesterone stays low until?? and then??
until ovulation and then stays high
Four phases of the menstrual cycle:
day 1-5 menses (low lvls of all hormones)
day 6-13 estrogenic phase (FSH and LH rise and estrogen rises)
day 14- ovulation (hormones increase and progesterone begins to rise
day 15-28- pro gestational phase- progesterone peaks (2nd half of the cycle)
The posterior pituitary gland is attached to the brain by?
to find the expected day of ovulation you...?
Mary has a cycle length of 32 days. when is she most likely to ovulate?
absence of cycle in woman of reproductive age
bartholin glands are homologous to the?
circumcision involves removal of the?
ejaculation, sperm cells leave the body via?
the mullein ducts when not exposed to androgens...
develop into emale structure
capacataion : p.29
the first 8 weeks of pregnancy the baby is called?
after 8 weeks of pregnancy has passed the baby is called a?
A girl has last menstrual flow on Oct 15 2013, what is the baby's estimated time of arrival?
(add 280 days) so July 22 2014
Human chorionic gonadotropin
HCG will be detected when?
the close you use the pregnancy test to the missed flow the...?
more accurate answer you'll have
when the basal body temp stays high...?
Her cycle is 32 days, she's most likely to ovulate when?
16-20 days (32-14=18)
Chorionic Villi Sampling can be done?
sooner than amniocentesis
What is the least effective method of contraception?
first 8 weeks of growth the production of conception is called a...?
can a virus be treated with antibiotics?
male incubation period is how long?
female incubation period is how long?
nongonococcal urethritis in men is caused by?
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