Chapter 13: The Old Regime: Absolutism and Enlightenment
Terms in this set (24)
(17th-18th centuries) The transition from the local economies of the Middle Ages to an economy based on overseas trade, the extension of banking and credit, and mercantilist policies.
A governmental philosophy which professed that in order to become wealthy and powerful, a nation had to accumulate more gold and silver by trading.
An economic system that allows individuals to own, operate, and profit from their own businesses in an open, competitive market.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
A form of government, usually hereditary monarchy, in which the ruler has no legal limits on his or her power.
English Civil War
(1642) supporters of parliament v. supporters of the king; started because Charles thought he had to answer to no one but God and parliament was just there to give him money
A monarchy (kings power) that is limited by laws and a constitution
English Bill of Rights
(1689) A Bill of Rights written after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which placed William and Mary on the throne of England. The bill created a limited monarchy and established Parliament as the ruling body of the nation.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
British writes, defined the rights of individuals in English Law, and property rights that could not be violated, not even by the King.
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
Sir Isaac Newton
he was best known for the development of calculus and his laws of motion and the universal law of gravitation
(1627-1691) Irish chemist who conducted experiments on gases at different temperatures. He is sometimes known as the "Father of Chemistry."
18th century movement led by French intellectuals who advocated reason as the universal source of knowledge and truth
3rd President of the United States, chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826); head of the Democratic Republicans; believed in strong state government/power; believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution
He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Baron de Montesquieu
believed government should have separation of powers
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
His book Wealth of Nations advocated the idea of laissez faire; or government not involving themselves in the economy.
A system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment, using reason and allowing limits on their power.