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Physiology of the Female Pelvis
OBGYN I Exam 2
Terms in this set (54)
Abnormally heavy or long periods
Abnormally light menstrual periods
An abnormally frequent recurrence of the menstrual cycle; a menstrual cycle of less than 21 days
Pain associated with menstruation
The absence of menstruation
-When a child's body begins changing too soon
-Secondary sexual characteristics before the age of 7, such as pubic hair, and menstruation before the age of 10
Pelvic pain associated with ovulation
-The phase of the ovarian cycle that the egg is released from the ovary
-This occurs on day 14 of the ovarian cycle
Period of time between the 1st period and the very last period
The time before the onset of menses, or the very first period
-State after reaching puberty in which menses occur normally every 21-28 days
-The very first menstrual bleeding
-Usually occurs between 11 and 13 years of age
-When menses have ceased permanently
-It is diagnosed after a woman has gone 12 months without a period
-Thin endometrium, <5 mm
-Ovulation will not occur
-Can be due to being on birth control or menopause
-Fibrous tissue that replaces the regressing corpus luteum
-It is a small, lobulated echogenic intra-ovarian lesion
Follicle after ovulation that acts as a short term endocrine organ and secretes progesterone
The cluster of cells around the oocyte
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of FSH and LH by the anterior pituitary gland
Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs)
-A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
-Stimulates the growth and maturation of Graafian follicles in the ovary
Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
-Stimulates ovulation and then induces luteinization of the ruptured follicle to form the corpus luteum
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
-Natural occurring (steroidal) hormones that regulate the growth, development, and function of the female reproductive system
-Regulated by the levels of FSH
-Secreted by the ovaries
-Promotes female characteristics and bone development
Secreted by the placenta and is only found during pregnancy
-Present after menopause
-Protects from cardiovascular disease and cancer
-A steroidal hormone produced by the corpus luteum
-Helps prepare and maintain the endometrium for the arrival and implantation of an embryo
-Prepares mammary glands for lactation
Menarche that occurs after age 18
What is the measurement of the endometrium when a post menopausal woman is NOT on HRT?
What is the measurement of the endometrium when a post menopausal woman is on HRT?
Less than or equal to 8mm
How much does the Graafian follicle grow per day?
When does the LH surge occur?
When estrogen reaches its peak level
What days does the menses phase occur?
What days does the proliferation phase occur?
What days does the secretory phase occur?
What are the effects of the hormones in the menses phase?
Decreased blood flow results in what during the menses phase?
Ischemia and shedding of the zona functionalis
What are the effects on the endometrium during the menses phase?
-Fluid and debris can be seen in the endometrial cavity
-Thin and echogenic endometrium
-Endometrium <4 mm
What are the effects of the hormones in the proliferation phase?
Increasing estrogen, which stimulates the cervix to produce mucus that allows the sperm to pass through the cervix
What are the effects on the endometrium in the proliferation phase?
-Early proliferative phase has a thin endometrium
-Later phase begins the thickening of the endometrium
-3 distinct layers of the endometrium (3 line sign)
What is the measurement of the endometrium during the proliferation phase?
4-8 mm in the early phase
6-10 mm in the late phase
What are the effects of the hormones in the secretory phase?
Increase estrogen and progesterone
What is the measurement of the endometrium in the secretory phase?
What are the effects on the endometrium during the secretory phase?
-Continues to thicken due to edema and proliferation of the gland
-Loss of the 3 line sign
What days does the follicular phase occur?
Day 1 until ovulation (Day 1-14)
What days does the ovulatory phase occur?
What days does the luteal phase occur?
What are the effects of the hormones in the follicular phase?
-Estrogen production increases (triggered by the increasing FSH)
What are the effects on the ovaries in the follicular phase?
Multiple small follicles of equal size
What are the effects of the hormones in the ovulatory phase?
LH surge causes the Graafian follicle to rupture
What are the effects on the ovaries in the ovulatory phase?
-Physiologic free fluid in the posterior cul de sac
What hormone does the free fluid in the posterior cul de sac contain after ovulation?
What are the effects of the hormones in the luteal phase?
-Corpus luteum forms from what is left of the graafian follicle and seretes progesterone
-Secretion of progesterone causes the endometrium to thicken
Why does the secretion of progesterone cause the endometrium to thicken in the luteal phase?
To support a pregnancy
If there is no fertilization in the luteal phase, what will happen?
The corpus luteum will regress and progesterone levels will fall
If fertilization does occur in the luteal phase, what will happen?
Progesterone will increase to prepare the endometrium for implantation
What is the sonographic appearance of the luteal phase?
-Corpus luteum shows signs of hemorrhage
-Blood flow seen around the corpus luteum is known as the "ring of fire"
-Corpus albicans replaces the regressing corpus luteum
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