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48 terms

Eukaryotic Cells

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Types of Eukaryotic Cells
Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protist
Size of Eukaryotic Cell
10-100 micrometers
Compartmentalized
the intracellular space of cells is separated into a variety of compartments
Orgenelle
a subcellular structure scattered throughout the cytoplasm; have distinct functions; not all are surrounded by a membrane
Types of Eukaryotic structures
Intracellular and Extracellular
Extracellular Structures
Plasma Membrane(all), cell wall(not animal),Flagellum(animal), cilia(animal/protist), extracellular matrix(animal)
Another name for plasma membrane
Cell membrane
Cell membrane
found in all cells; composed of double layer of phospholipids, contains proteins and cholesterol, described by the fluid mosaic model
Glycoproteins
cell recognition tags
Cell recognition tags
embryonic cell sorting; self recognition (immune system function, blood type)
Antigens
any molecule that triggers an immune response
Blood Type
describes which glycoproteins are protruding from your erythrocytes
Blood Type classification
Type A; Type B; Type AB; Type O
RH factor
If you have the RH protein also protruding, then you are said to have an A+, B+, AB+, or O+
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
aka hemolytic disease; mothers body does not recognize babies blood proteins and kills it
Cell Wall
PLants(cellulose; Fungi(Chitin); Algae(proteins/sugars): Provides structural support and protection
Cilia
primary source of movement in Cells: in animals used to sweep out debris and clean respiratory tract
Ciliates
paramecium
Flagella
found in protist, vertabrate sperm, and bacteria
Intracellular structures
Nucleus; Nucleolus; Endoplasmic Reticulum; Golgi Apparatus; Lysosome(animal); Vacuole; MItochondria; Chloroplast(plants/protist); Peroxisome; Ribosome; cytoskeleton; Centrioles(animals)
Nucleus
spherical; surrounded by a double membrane(nuclear envelope and nuclear pores; filled with liquid called nucleoplasm
Function of Nucleus
storage of nuclear or chromosomal DNA; brain of the cell; synthesis of mRNA
Chromosomal DNA
46 total chromosomes (23 pairs); 30,000 genes;
Chromatin
storage form of DNA; complex of chromosomes and proteins(histones)
Nucleolus
within the nucleus; synthesizes ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum
an extensive network of tubes; interior and exterior portions
exterior ER
called cytoplasmic side
interior ER
called the lumen
Endoplasmic Reticulum Regions
divided into two distinct regions; the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough ER
connected to the nuclear envelope; covered by ribosomes
Functions of Rough ER
synthesis of new membranes; synthesis and modification of proteins destined for incorporations into membranes and export for the cell
Smooth ER
connected to the rough er but lacks ribosomes
Functions of Smooth ER
synthesis of lipids; detoxification of poisons; storage of calcium ions
Golgi Apparatus
series of flatten sacs each sac is a seperate compartment; molecules are transported by vesicles; golgi complex has distinct ends
cis face
recieves materials from the er
trans face
ships material to destination
Function of Golgi Apparatus
recieve and modifies substances from the ER; sorts and tags substances for shipping; ships substances to their target destination; production of hyaluronic acid
Lysosome
membrane-bound sac (pH-4); intracellular digestion; contains hydrolytic enzymes; produced by rough er
Function of Lysosome
digestion of food vacuoles; recycle nutrients(liver cells); destruction of Bacteria(phagocytes); aid embryonic development
apoptosis
programed cell death; digest themselves
Pompe's Disease
glycogen accumulation packs the cell and eventually kills it
Tay-Sachs Disease
Fat accumulation packs the cell full with fat and eventually kills it
Central Vacuole
large membrane-bound compartment; largest structure in the plant cell
Function of Central Vacuole
Digestion and recycling of Materials; storage(water, waste, pigments, toxins)
Contractile Vacuole
Membrane-bound pump; appears as hub and spokes
Function of Contractile Vacuole
Removes excess water from the cell; aids in homestasis
Food Vacuole
a nutrient rich vacuole; formed by absorption of nutrients into the cell
Function of Food Vacuole
carries nutrients to the lysosomes