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Cognitive Psychology Exam 4
Terms in this set (80)
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Describe the experiment on color perception that supports this hypothesis. Also describe the evidence that indicates that the hypothesis may hold for only one side of the visual field.
Hypothesis: Nature of a culture's language can affect the way people think.
Winawer experiment; Compared Russian-speaking vs. English-speaking participants and how they discriminate different shades of blue. Shown three blue squares and instructed to pick the square on the bottom that matched the color of the square on top. In some trials, two squares on the bottom were from the same Russian category, but in others they were from different Russian categories. Russian subjects responded more quickly when two bottom squares were from different categories than when they were from the same. English participants did not respond more quickly when colors were in different Russian categories.
Gilbert experiment: Presented subjects with green squares in the wheel were the same except for a target square (blue), or when target was same as the others (slightly different green). Subject had to press button to determine if target was on left or right side of wheel. When display on left (nonlanguage part of brain) visual field, reaction time to identify target was the same. But if on the right, reaction times were faster when target from a different category. Language may effect perception, depending on which side of the brain is used.
Describe how syntactic coordination facilitates conversations. Be sure you understand syntactic priming and what it demonstrates about language production
In a conversation, people use similar grammatical constructions.
Syntactic priming-hearing a statement with a particular syntactic construction increases the chances that a sentence will be produced with the same construction. Can lead people to coordinate the grammatical form of their statements during a conversation.
Branigan's experiment: subjects told experiment was about how people communicate when they can't see each other, thought they were working with another person on other side of the screen, but the other person was a confederate. Confederate gave priming statement "The girl gave the book to the boy" and the participant had to 1. find the matching card that corresponded with confederate's statement and 2. pick a response card from the deck. 78% of the time, participant's description matched the form of the confederate's priming statement.
Describe how semantic coordination facilitates conversations.
Semantic: Conversations are easier when there is shared information Given-new contract: Give shared and new information in a sentence to make sense: "Ed was given an alligator for his birthday."
Haviland and Clark experiment, Subjects had to press button when understood second sentence. Took longer if the first sentence did not share similar information. New sentence and nothing shared. "We checked the picnic supplies." "The beer was warm." vs. "We got some beer out of the trunk" "The beer was warm."
Brain activation for changes in different types of events in a story.
Speer experiment. Participants read book that describes everyday activities of Raymond. Brain activity was measured as they read the story. 1. Reading a story activates many areas in the cortex; 2. specific actions cause activity in different areas, although there is also overlap.
Brain activation for the action words compared to actual action
Hauk experiment: brain activity was measured using fMRI under two conditions 1. as they moved their right or left food, index finger, or tongue. 2. As they read "action words" such as "kick," "pick," or "lick." Results showed areas of the cortex activated by the actual movements and by reading the action words. More extensive for actual movements, but in same places while reading.
Reaction times to answer questions about "blocked" and "unblocked" stories
Horton and Rapp gave participants short passages. One about a girl watching a horror movie. Blocked story: Mom stands in front of the TV and tells her not to forget her homework. Unblocked alternative: stands behind the TV.
Tone goes off after 7th sentence, warning tone sounds, and target questioned asked, "Was the victim being stalked by a vampire?
Subject slower to answer in "blocked" because TV with vampire story was "blocked" from vision, and it had the answer.
Situation model: reaction times for pictures that match or don't match the orientations or shapes of objects in a story
Participants read a sentence. Either: 1. He hammered the nail into the wall or 2. He hammered the nail into the floor. Shown a picture of a nail either horizontal (wall) or vertical (floor) and asked if represented sentence. Said "yes" to both, but more quickly to the orientation that matched the sentence. Same for eagle in the sky or next.
What are the assumptions behind the situation model?
Situation model: mental representation of what a text is about. Proposes that mental representation people form as they read story does not consist of information about phrases, sentences, or paragraphs; instead, it is a representation of the situation in terms of the people, objects, locations, and events that are being described in the story.
What are the different types of inference, and what is their relation to coherence?
Anaphoric inference: Inferences that connect an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence.
Instrument inference: Inferences about tools or methods. Know that Shakespeare didn't use a laptop, but probably a quill pen. Use knowledge we already know to determine this. Why we thought John used a hammer.
Casual inference: Inferences that the events described in one clause or sentence were caused by events that occurred in a previous sentence. "Sharon took an aspirin. Her headache went away."
What is coherence?
The representation of the text in a person's mind sot hat information in one part of the text is related to information in another part of the text.
Determine what the text means by using our knowledge to go beyond the information provided by the text.
Bransford and Johnson's participants read about John "pounding a nail." When shown passage of John "using a hammer," thought they had seen the passage before. They inferred that John was using a hammer.
Why do we say that understanding a story involves more than adding up the meanings of the sentences that make up the story?
Sentences in one part of the story are related to sentences in another part. Reader's task is to use these relationships between sentences to create a coherent story. Need to use inferences.
The rules for combining words into sentences.
the meanings of words and sentences
Interactionist explanation of parsing. What are the roles of syntax and semantics in each explanation? What evidence supports the interactionist approach?
Wonders WHEN semantics is involved. Interactionist wonders if it comes into play as a sentence is being read.
Experiment: "Put the apple on the towel in the box" while looking at apple, towel, box, and pencil. Eye movement tracked. First, look at apple and then other towel, but once read "in the box" move eyes back from apple and then to box. Apple should go in box. Two apple condition: Pencil replaced with another apple. Participants looked from first apple on napkin ("put the apple") and then to the apple that is on the towel ("one the towel") When hear "In the bx," eyes moved to the box. This time, "on the towel" is interpreted as indicating not that the apple should be placed on the other towel, but that the apple that is on the towel should be picked up and moved.
Syntax-first would say that based on structure of sentence, initial interpretation should be that apple is placed on towel. True for first condition, not for second. Shows that syntactic information in the sentence and the information provided by the scene are taken into account. Shows evidence for interactionist effect: info from the scene helps.
Describe the syntax-first explanation of parsing. What are the roles of syntax and semantics in each explanation?
Parsing-central process for determining the meaning of a sentence. Group words into phrases.
Syntax-first approach to parsing focuses on how parsing is determined by syntax-the grammatical structure of the sentence.
Groups phrases together based on structural principles, like "late closure," when person encounters a new word, the parsing mechanism assumes that this word is part of the current phrase, so each is added to phrase for as long as possible. ("Cast-iron sinks quickly rust" sentence, and determining where phrases begin and end in a sentence.) Wonders WHETHER semantics is involved.
Why do we say that there is more to understanding a sentence than simply adding up the meanings of the words that make up the sentence?
Garden path sentence-leads reader "down the garden path," which can be wrong if we interpret as we go and don't wait for context.
Words can have more than one meaning. Context usually clears up the difference so quickly we aren't aware of it.
Lexical priming experiment: Swinney presented the passage about government building to participants, as they were hearing the word "bug," they were presented a word or nonword on a screen. The words were either related to "insect" or "hidden listening device." Were told to indicate if word on screen was word or nonword. Participants responded with same speed to both "ant" and "spy." Shows that they processed "bug" as both contexts at the same time. Effect vanished when repeated the same test, but waited to present the word or non word about 200 ms before presenting the test words. Thus, context helps with ambiguity, but it does delay so we can get meaning from other words.
Fact that we respond rapidly to high-frequency words like "home" than to low-frequency words like "hike."
Demonstrated in lexical decision task: Participants asked to read stimuli and decide whether they are or are not words. High-frequency words were read faster than low-frequency ones. Measured through eye movements, slowed down (fixations) to stop for the word, as opposed to rapid movements (saccades).
Word superiority effect
Refers to finding that letters are easier to recognize when they are contained in a word than when thy appear alone or are contained in a nonword. Reicher experiment, stimulus is flashed. Is either w word, letter, or nonword. Immediately followed by random pattern and two letters, one that appeared in the original stimulus and another that did not. Participants must pick which letter was in the original stimulus. Remember best if first stimulus was a word.
Describe the following demonstration of how context helps with perception of words and components of words: 1. phonemic restoration effect
Filling in of the missing phoneme. Warren said to participants, "The state governors met with their respective legislatures convening in the capital city." Replaced the "s" in "legislatures" with a cough, and asked where in the sentence the cough occurred. No participant identified the correct position of the cough because brain filled in using top-down processing. Also influences words that follow the missing phoneme. "There was time to *ave...." participants all put "wave" when the rest of the sentence indicated saying goodbye.
2. isolating words from conversations
We pronounce words differently, even if have same accent. "Did you" is said "Dijoo." Pollack and Pickett recorded participants who sat in a room, waiting for the experiment to begin. When participants word presented with recordings of single words taken out of their own conversations, they could only identify half of the words. Perceiving words in conversations is aided by context.
3. speech segmentation
Process of perceiving individual words in the continuous flow of the speech signal. (If hear a different language, hard to distinguish one word from the next, but if we hear our own, we hear it.)
Meaning helps us distinguish "Big girl" vs. "Big Earl."
Other information: When learning a language, learn that certain sounds are more likely to follow one another withing a word. Know that "pretty baby" "pre" and "ty" go together and not "ty" and "ba."
Knowledge about words is stored here. Tells what words mean, how they sound, and how they are used in relation to other words.
What are the two components of words?
1. Phonemes: Shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of the word. SOUNDS, not letters ("e" in "some" isn't one,but any letter in "bit" is). Different languages use different sounds, so number of phonemes vary in languages. 47 in English, 60 in African, 11 in Hawaiian.
2. Morphemes-smallest units of language that have a definable meaning or a grammatical functioning. ("Truck" has many phonemes, but only one morpheme. "Bedroom" has two morphemes because "bed" and "room" each mean something on their own. "Trucks" has two morphemes.)
Psycholinguistics and acquisition
How do people learn language? This includes not only how children learn language, but also how people learn additional languages, either as children or later in life.
Psycholinguistics and representation
How is language represented in the mind and in the brain? This includes how people group words together into phrases and make connections between different parts of a story, as well as how these processes are related to the activation of the brain
Psycholinguistics and speech production
How do people produce language? This includes the physical processes of speech production and the mental processes that occur as a person creates speech
Psycholinguistics and comprehension
How do people understand spoken and written language? This includes how people process language sounds; how they understand words, sentences, and stories expressed in writing, speech, or sign language; an dhow people have conversations with one another.
What is psycholinguistics? What are its concerns, and what part of psycholinguistics does this chapter focus on?
The field concerned with the psychological study of language. Goal is to discover the psychological processes by which humans acquire and process language.
Four major concerns:
2. Speech production
We focus on firs three
What events are associated with the beginning of the modern study of language in the 1950s?
Skinner-behaviorism. Published book "Verbal Behavior." Proposed language is learned through reinforcement. Children learn language by being reinforced for using it correctly and not when using it incorrectly.
Chomsky- Published book "Syntactic Structures." Proposed human language is coded in the genes. As humans are programmed to walk, they are programmed to acquire and use language. Universally underlying basis of language is similar. Saw studying language as opportunity to study he mind. Disagreed with behaviorist idea that the mind is not a valid topic for study for psychology. Argument was that children produce sentences that they have never heard before and have never been reinforced.
What is special about human language? Consider why human language is unique and what it is used for.
Is creative because 1. hierarchical and 2. governed by rules. These endow humans with the ability to go far beyond the fixed calls and signs of animals, to communicate whatever they want to express.
Universal: Need to communicate drives deaf children to make their own sign language if no one else knows it. Everyone develops language and learns to follow its rules, even if not aware. Most find grammar difficult, but not using the language. Universal across cultures, all cultures have them, even New Guinea that was isolated. Language development is similar across cultures (babies start babbling at 7 months and multiword utterances at 2). Languages are unique but the same. They use different words, sounds, and rules, but have the same functions of nouns and verbs and quick system to make things negative, questions, and past and present.
What is the psychological definition of a problem? Distinguish between well-defined and ill-defined problems.
A problem occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle. Something is difficult and the solution is not immediately obvious.
Well-defined: usually have a correct answer; certain procedures, when applied correctly, will lead to a solution (math, physics, etc.)
Ill-defined: occur frequently in everyday life, but don't have one correct answer, and the pah to their solution is often unclear. (relationships, picking a career, etc.)
What is the basic principle behind the Gestalt approach to problem solving? Describe how the following problems illustrate this principle, and also what else these problems demonstrate about problem solving: the circle (radius) problem
Problem solving is about 1. how people represent a problem in their mind and 2. how solving a problem involves a reorganization or restructuring of this representation.
Example: People figure out crossword puzzles differently. Even if looks the same on paper, can look different in mind (approach horizontally or vertically). Figuring out circle radius problem, change problem's representation through RESTRUCTURING.
What is insight, and what is the evidence that insight does, in fact, occur as people are solving a problem?
Sudden realization of a problem's solution.
Tested "insight" and "noninsight" (should have a better idea of when they are close to the solution). Asked participants to make "warmth" judgement every 15 seconds on a 7-point scale (7 is hot) as they were working on problems. Used triangle problem (move three of the circles to get the triangle pointing to the bottom of the page), chain problem (woman has four pieces of chain, wants to make a single loop, costs 2 cents to open a link and 3 cents to close, but she only has 15 cents).
Noninsight: algebra problems.
Insight problems, warmth is low at 2 or 3 right before problem is solved, still a 3 15 seconds before solution. For noninsight, ratings gradually increased.
Gestalt believed BLANK was involved in insight
Restructuring; tried to make problems hard to restructure to see how people dealt with obstacles.
Fixation and candle problem.
Gestalt believed was major obstacle to problem solving. People's tendency to focus on specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution. One type is to focus on familiar uses of the problem (functional fixedness).
Candle problem: asked participants to use various objects to complete a task. Given candles, corkboard on wall, matchbox, and some backs. Figure out how to put candle on the corkboard so it will burn without dripping wax on the floor. Solution is whne person realizes matchbox can be used as a support rather than as a container. Another condition had empty boxes, so they weren't seen as containers. This group did better with the task.
Functional fixedness and the two-string problem
Participants task was to tie together two strings that were hanging from the ceiling. Difficult because strings are separated, so it is impossible to reach one while holding the other. A chair and pair of pliers were in the room. To solve, participants needed to tie pliers to one of the strings to create a pendulum, so it could swing to person's reach. First 60% of participants didn't solve because only thought of function of the pliers and not weight. When Maier set the string into motion by "accidentally" brushing against it, 23 of 37 participants solved it within 10 minutes. Seeing the string sway from side to side triggered the idea. As Gestalt would say, they RESTRUCTURED the idea.
Mental set and the water jug problem
Mental set: preconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determined by a person's experience or what has worked in the past.
Experiment: participants given three jugs of different capacities and are required to use these jugs to measure out a specific quantity of water. Solution for problem 1, B-A-2C. Problem 7 can only use A and C. One condition did all the problems sequentially (mental set group) and did longer way to solve problem because had learned long way in beginning. Another group only did 7 and 8, and they did a shorter solution.
Describe Newell and Simon's approach to problem solving, in which "search" plays a central role. How does means-end analysis as applied to the Tower of Hanoi problem illustrate this approach?
"Logic theorist" computer program. Instead of Gestalt's initial structure and then restructure, this suggests that problem solving is a search that occurs between the posing of the problem and its solution. Problems have initial state and goal state.
Tower of Hanoi problem: Initial state-three discs stacked on left peg, goal state- stack discs on right peg.
Operators: actions that take the problem from one state to another (rules).
Means-end-analysis: Primary goal is to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states. Achieved by creating subgoals (intermediate steps that are close to the goal).
How do the acrobat problem and Kaplan and Simon's mutilated checkerboard experiment illustrate that the way a problem is stated can affect a person's ability to solve the problem? What are the implications of this research for Newell and Simon's "problem space" approach?
Acrobat problem similar to the tower problem. Took the average person 5.63 minutes to solve. Reverse acrobat problem is different in that rule 4 changed, a smaller acrobat cannot stand on a larger one. Same number of steps, but took 9.51 minutes to complete. Probably because not consistent with knowledge of real world, hard to visualize. We need to go beyond analyzing the structure of hte problem space.
Mutilated checkerboard problem. 64 squares, covered with 32 dominos. If we eliminate two corner squares, can it be covered with 31 dominos? No. Four conditions: blank squares, colored squares, "black" and "pink" word squares, and "bread" and "butter" squares. The condition that emphasized the difference between adjoining squares made it easier to solve-bread and butter condition.
What is the basic idea behind analogical problem solving? How effective is it to present a source problem and then the target problem, without indicating that the source problem is related to the target problem?
Consider whether another problem that was previously solved is similar to the new problem. Use information from source problem (Russian Wedding) to help with target problem (checkerboard).
Radiation problem: presented subjects with problem of destroying a tumor in the stomach, best way was to use several low intensity lasers. Then, asked a fortress question. 70% of participants not able to solve second problem, even after reading the source. But when told to think about story before, success doubled to 70%.
What are the three steps in the process of analogical problem solving? Which of the steps appears to be the most difficult to achieve?
1. Noticing: that there is an analogous relationship between the source story and the target problem. Most difficult.
2. Mapping: the correspondence between the source story and the target problem. To solve the next problem, participant has to map corresponding parts of the story.
3. Applying: the mapping to generate a parallel solution to the target problem. Generalizing about the soldiers to the fortress like the lasers to the tumor.
How do the surface features and the structural features of problems influence a person's ability to make effective use of analogies in problem solving? Describe experiments relevant to this question, and also techniques that have been used to improve analogical problem solving.
When radiation problem before lightbulb problem (similar surface features), 81% got it correct, while only 10% of the control did. Similar surface features enhance analogical transfer.
Structural features: underlying principle that governs the solution. Structure of fragile-glass and radiation same, most participants got the second one. Insufficient-intensity version and radiation have different structural features, only 33% could solve. Analogical transfer aided by both surface and structural features that are similar.
Getner had people compare stories (trade-off: sisters getting the parts of the orange that they want, peel or juice; contingency: each get half of the orange). Subjects were able to relate to another problem.
What is the analogical paradox? How has analogical problem solving been studied in the real world?
People in psych studies tend to focus on surface features in analogy problems, but people in the real world use deeper, more structural features.
Dunbar and coworkers recorded meetings of people being recorded to develop a new product "in vivo approach"-in life. Researchers use analogies 3 to 15 times an hour in a one hour lab meeting.
What is an expert? What are some differences between the way experts and nonexperts go about solving problems? How good are experts at solving problems outside of their field?
Expert: people who, by devoting a large amount of time to learning about a field and practicing and applying that learning, have become acknowledged as being extremely knowledgeable or skilled in the particular field.
Chess experts better at recognizing chess positions when they are actually game moves. If randomly arranged, no better than a novice. Knowledge is organized so it can be accessed when needed to work on the problem.
But organized differently from novice. Presented physics problems to experts and novices, asked which two problems went together. Novices grouped together the ones that had the same inclined plane-surface features. Experts grouped together based on structural features and principles of physics- deep structure.
Experts take more time analyzing problems.
Experts are only experts in their field.
What is convergent thinking? What is divergent thinking? How are these two types of thinking related to creativity?
Divergent: Thinking that is open-ended, involving a large number of potential "solutions" and no "correct" answer, although they might be found. ill-defined problems
Convergent: thinking that works toward finding a solution to a specific problem that usually has a correct answer. well-defined problems.
Some of the principles of problem solving apply to creativity.
How fixation can affect creativity
Sony was "fixated" on CDs having to be 12 inches in diameter and couldn't move forward, because fixated on current medium of music. Once realized CDs could be smaller, moved on.
Jansson and Smith studied effect of fixation on creativity. Presented engineering design students with design problems and telling them to generate as many designs as possible in 45 minutes. One was to design an inexpensive, spill-proof coffee cup. Design could not use straw or mouth piece. "fixation group" presented with sample design of what "not" to do. Control didn't see design. Each group had approximately same number of designs, but fixation group had more designs with straws and mouthpieces. Influenced by sample design-design fixation.
de Mestral's use of analogy to invent velcro
Came home from a hike with burrs all over his pants. Looked at them under a microscope, saw their tiny hooks on the ends, and invented Velcro: small hooks on one side, and soft loops on the other. Analogy stimulated a new invention, and that the initial idea is often just the beginning of the creative process. It took 7 years to make a marketable product.
Finke's creative cognition procedure
Technique to train people to think creatively. Show 15 object parts and their names. Close your eyes and touch the page three times to randomly pick three parts. Take one minute to construct a new object with these parts. Should be interesting looking, don't worry about uses, don't have it similar to something else. Draw a picture. Then, given a category name (like "tools") and had to describe how object would be useful in that category. Called these inventions "preinventive forms" because they are ideas that precede the creation of a finished creative product. Demonstrated that you don't have to be an inventor to be creative, and that many of the processes that occur during creative cognition are similar to the cognitive processes from other areas of cognitive psychology.
Under what conditions are people with high working memory capacity better at solving math problems than are people with low working memory capacity? Under what conditions do they lose this advantage? Why does this probably occur?
Had High group and Low group work under pressure, and other set of groups work under low pressure. HWM worked better under now pressure, but LWM had no change of performance in high pressure condition, while HWM performance declined.
Probably because HWM favor complex strategies, and LWM use short cuts instead of doing the steps of the algorithm. When no pressure, HWM do all of the steps, but when pressure, stat using short cuts too. Use short cuts maybe to deal with the anxiety, then ti robs them of working memory advantage because not doing the alrogithm they are capable of. Probably distracted.
DeCaro did experiment where made participants talk about what they were doing to distract themselves. No-talk condition did better when there was high pressure, but no difference under low pressure.
Practice can help people not "choke"-people who did math problems before a test were less stressed.
What is deductive reasoning?
Deductive reasoning: involves sequences of statements called syllogisms. "If a C is required to graduate, and Josie graduated, than Josie has at least a C." Syllogisms have to premises and a conclusion.
We arrive at conclusions that are probably true. If Richard attended college for four years, and is now vice president of a bank, he most likely graduated.
What is a categorical syllogism?
Categorical syllogisms in which the premises and conclusion describe the relation between two categories by using statements that begin with "all, no, or some." "All birds are animals. All animals eat food. Therefore, all birds eat food."
What is the difference between validity and truth in categorical syllogisms?
Validity: A syllogism is valid when its conclusion follows logically from its two premises:
All birds are animals. (All A are B)
All animals have four legs (All B are C)
All birds have four legs (All A are C)
Syllogism two has the same form as syllogism one. Validity depends on FORM.
Truth depends on the content of the premises. Not all animals have four legs, so it's not true.
All of the students are tired.
Some tired people are irritable.
Some of the students are irritable.
What is a conditional syllogism? Which of the four types of syllogisms described in the chapter are valid, which are not valid, and how well can people judge the validity of each type?
Have to premises and a conclusion, but first premise has the form "If...then..." Common in everyday life. "If I lend Steve $20, I won't get it back. I lent Steve $20. Therefore, I won't get my $20 back."
The syllogisms that are valid are: Syllogism 1 Affirming the antecedent; "p" I studied, therefore "q," I'll get a good grade. 97% of the time, people can judge the validity correctly.
Syllogism 2 Denying the consequent: "Not q;" I didn't get a good grade; therefore, (not p) I didn't study. 60%
What is the Wason four-card problem? Describe the falsification principle. What do the results of experiments that have used abstract and concrete versions of the problem indicate about the roles of a. concreteness; b. knowledge of regulations; and c. permission schemas in solving this problem?
People are better at judging the validity of real-world examples when they are changed to abstract symbols.
Each card has a letter one one side and a number on the other. Task is to indicate which cards you would need to turn over to test the rule: If there is a vowel on one side, then there is an even number on the other side. "E,K,4,7"-E must be turned over because it directly tests the rule. "7" needs to be turned over, because if it has a vowel, it would disconfirm the rule. No other card has rules, but most would say "4." but there is no rule about consonants and even numbers. Only 4% got it right.
Falsification rule: to test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule.
Wason and knowledge of the regulations
Used a beer/drinking age version of Wason's card trick. If the person is drinking a beer, they must be over 19. None of the participants got it right. The cards were: "Beer, soda, 16, 24." Being able to relate teh beer to the regulations about drinking makes it easier to realize that "16 years" must be turned over.
The role of "permission" in the wason task
Pragmatic reasoning schema: way of thinking about cause and effect in the real world that is learned as part of experiencing everyday life.
Permission schema: if person satisfies condition A, they get to carry out action B. "If you are 19, then you get to drink beer."
Most people knew this, so able to apply to the card task. Activating the permission schema helps people focus attention on the card that would test the schema. People focus on "16" because they know "beer" on the other side would invalidate it.
67% of people picked correct cards when asked to see if correct diseases were on the list. But 91% got it correct when told they had to GIVE PEOPLE PERMISSION to enter the country.
How has the evolutionary approach to cognition been applied to the Wason four-card problem?
Argue that we can trace properties of our minds to the evolutionary principles of natural selection. (birds changed beaks to eat food that was available.) According to evolutionary model, people who can detect cheating will have a better chance of survival, so part of brain's cognitive make up. So Wason task: Do well in "entering the country task" because can detect someone who cheats by entering the country without a cholera shot.
To test cheating vs. permission, gave people cards with unfamiliar situations (because part of permission idea is that it is familiar). Had high performance on this task about a hypothetical culture because caught someone cheating. Did better on unfamiliar ones that involved cheating instead of other ones. But also did well on a permission statement.
What can we conclude from all of the experiments on the Wason problem?
Context within which conditional reasoning occurs makes a big difference. Familiar situations often generate better reasoning than abstract statements or ones that people cannot relate to. But familiarity is not always necessary, and sometimes people perform poorly in situations, even if they are familiar.
Shows how a number of different hypotheses about what is happening in the mind can be plausibly inferred from the same behavioral evidence.
What is inductive reasoning and how is it different from deductive reasoning?
In deductive, premises are stated as facts. In inductive, premises are based on observation of one or more specific cases, and we generalize from these cases to a more general conclusion. Conclusions are SUGGESTED, with varying degrees of certainty.
Observation: All the crows I've seen in Pittsburgh are black. When I visited DC, the crows I saw there were black too.
Conclusion: I think it is a pretty good be that all crows are black.
But Observation: Here in Tuscon, the sun has risen every morning.
Conclusion: The sun is going to rise in Tuscon tomorrow.
More likely. Depends on: Representativeness of observations, number of observations, and quality of the evidence.
How is inductive reasoning involved in everyday experience?
If know Professor has put experimental data on the test in the past, will study that for the next test. If Sam got good service from one company before, he will order again. Anytime we make a prediction of what WILL happen based on our observations about what HAS happened.
How do the following cause errors in reasoning: availability heuristic
States that events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probable than events that are less easily remembered.
When people asked if words that began with "R" are more common than when "r" is the third letter, most picked first, even though 3 times more likely it's option B. It's easier to think of words that begin with "r" than have it as their third letter.
When asked to judge the prevalence of a certain kind of death, many picked answers that were publicized by the media, but were wrong.
McKelvie experiment: showed participants either a list of famous men (12 famous men and 14 nonfamous women names) or famous women (12 famous women and 14 nonfamous men). When participants asked to estimate if there were more famous men or women, most picked depending on if their list had more male or female names.
These are because of availability.
Illusory correlations and errors in reasoning
Occur when a correlation between two events appears to exist, but in reality there is no correlation or it is much weaker than it is assumed to be. For example, stereotypes. Related to availability heuristic because selective attention to the stereotypical behaviors makes these behaviors more "available."
The representativeness heuristic and errors in reasoning
Availability refers to how OFTEN we expect events to occur, this relates to how much one event RESEMBLES another. States that the probability that A is a member of class B can be determined by how well the properties of A resemble those we usually associate with B.
Asked, "randomly picked one male from U.S. Wears glasses, speaks quietly,and reads a lot. Is it more likely that he is a librarian or a farmer?" More guessed he was a librarian, even though the base rate of male farmers is more likely than male librarians. When told people, "In group, 70 are lawyers, 30 are engineers. Which is more likely if randomly selected?" said lawyer, correct. But then, when given another story, said most likely an engineer, even though numbers knowingly went against it. People disregard base rate information, which can cause errors in reasoning.
Making judgments without considering the conjunction rule
Probability of a conjunction of two events cannot be higher than the probability of the single constituents. Gave description of young woman, asked which is more likely, is she 1. a bank teller or 2. a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Most people pick 2, but 1 is most likely. People influenced by representative heuristic, she fits what most people think of as a typical feminist.
representative heuristic and small numbers
law of large numbers: the larger the number of individuals that are randomly drawn from a population, the more representative the resulting group will be of the entire population.
When asked which hospital probably had 60% of baby boys instead of the actual 50% average, most picked that it would be the same as a big hospital. It would be the small, because it is a less accurate sample size. People often assume that representativeness holds for small samples, and this results in errors of reasoning.
What is the confirmation bias? Describe Wason's experiment on sequences of numbers
Our tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to our hypothesis and to overlook information that argues against it.
Wason told participants that they would be given three numbers that conform to a simple rule he has in mind. They have to discover the rule by writing down the three numbers with their reasons for their choice. After set 1 written down, he will tell them if they conform to the rule or not. When confident they know the rule, tell him. Notice, told them it FIT his rule, not WAS his rule. Most said "increasing numbers of two" but his rule was "three numbers in increasing order of magnitude." Fit, but not the rule. People who guessed correctly tried multiple hypothesis before announcing the rule. Those who guessed incorrectly kept picking rules that were aligned with their own rule.
Confirmation bias and Lord's experiment on attitudes about capital punishment
Confirmation bias is so strong that it can affect people's reasoning by causing them to ignore relevant information. Through a questionnaire, Lord had one group who approved of capital punishment, and another against it. Each participant was presented with descriptions of research studies on capital punishment. Some provided evidence that capital punishment has deterrent effect on murder, others that it did not have an effect. When participants reacted to the studies, their responses reflected their attitudes before the experiment. If in favor of capital punishment, rated the article "convincing," if against, rated it "unconvincing."
What is the utility approach to decisions? What are some examples of situations in which people do not behave to maximize the outcome, as the utility approach proposes?
Based on the assumption that people are basically rational, so if they have all of the relevant information, they will make a decision that results in the maximum expected utility. Utility refers to outcomes that achieve a person's goals.
BUT, people still play slot machines.
In experiment, people chose the bowl with more red beans (if they pick one, they get $1), instead of the smaller bowl with the higher probability but less red beans. Seeing more red beans overpowered their knowledge of probability.
In real life, more people drive than fly, even though there are more car crash deaths. 911 slowed air travel, even though it is much less likely.
"Deal or No Deal" game
expected emotions, integral immediate emotions, and incidental immediate emotions.
Expected emotions: emotions that people predict they will feel for a particular outcome. (People think about how they will feel about expecting the bank's offer of $125,000 or potentially winning $500,000, or how bad they will feel if they reject the offer and there was $10 in the suitcase.) Predicts PROBABLE emotions, not actually feeling it.
Emotions that are experienced at the time a decision is being made. Integral immediate emotions are associated with the act of making the decision. (Anxiety when deciding to take offer on Deal or No Deal.)
Incidental immediate emotions are emotion that are unrelated to he decision. Can be caused by a person's general disposition or something that happened earlier in the day.
Any of the emotions can have an affect on decisions, but only expected emotion, which involves some element of rational thought can be handled within the expected utility framework.
What is the connection between risk aversion and people's ability to predict their emotions? Describe the Kermer experiment in which participants rated their expected happiness before gambling and their actual happiness after the results were known.
Tendency to avoid taking risks. Have effect on people's decisions because they think that a big loss will have a greater impact than a big win.
Kermer: Gave participants $5 and told them to flip a coin. They would win an additional 5, or lose 3. Participants rated their happiness before the experiment, and rated it to how it changed if they lost. Participants predicted that the negative effect of losing $3 would be greater than the positive effect of winning $5. Actually, the effect of losing was much less than predicted, but the positive effect of winning was only a little less than predicted. Can lead to inefficient decision making
What is some of the evidence that incidental emotions affect decisions? Consider the relationship between weather and university admissions, and Lerner's experiment on the relationship between mood and setting buying and selling prices.
Universities more likely to accept academic attributes on cloudy days, and non academics on sunny days.
Lerner: had people either watch a sad film, disgusting film, or neutral film. Then asked how much they would sell or buy the set for. Sadness and disgust were more willing to sell for less than the neutral group. Probably because disgust is associated with a need to expel things and sad needs a change. Sad people were more willing to pay for the set, also showing a need for change.
How do the way choices are presented affect the decisions people make?
"Opt-in," in the states we have to sign a card to become an organ donor. Because of this, only 28% of people are donors In Canada, have to "opt-out," must sign to NOT be one, so 99% of people are organ donors, even though most people in the States approve.
Tversky experiment: People chose option A when "200 people would be saved" but option B when "400 will die" (out of 600). When a choice is listed in term so fgains, people more acceptable. Use risk-aversion strategy. When terms of losses, people use risk-taking strategy. Framing effect.
Justification in decision making
Hypothetical situation: You either passed or failed a qualifying exam. Asked if they wanted to buy a cruise package, didn't , or wanted to wait 2 days. No difference between two groups, about 50% of each bought package. But when there was a third group who was told they wouldn't know the outcome of the exam for two days, 61% said they'd wait to see their results. Needed to justify if they should reward themselves with a vacation or not.
How is the prefrontal cortex involved in problem solving and reasoning?
activated by stimuli from all of the senses, retrieval of memories, and anticipation of future events. Can be affected by person's emotional state.
1. Planning and perseveration: person with tumor in PFC couldn't plan meals. Also important with flexibility, essential for solving problems. Perseveration: switching from one pattern of behavior to another. Patients with damage had trouble when rules changed in card-sorting task.
2. Problem solving: Patients had problems with Tower of Hanoi, Tower of London, and Water-jug problem
3. Understanding stories: Patients could understnad individual words and identify events described in stories, but unable to follow the order of events or make inferences.
4. Reasoning: Could arrange people in order of height when told, "Sam is taller than Nate, Nate is taller than Roger," but not when made more complicated.
What is neuroeconomics? Describe Sanfey and coworkers' experiment, and indicate what it adds to our understanding of decision making.
Combines research from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, and economics. One part has determined areas of brain that are activated as people make decisions while playing economic games. Shows that decisions are influenced by emotions.
Sanfey: people played ultimatum game: One person is "proposer" and other is "responder." Proposer is given $10, and makes offer to the responder about splitting it. If responder accepts, split, if rejects, neither player gets anything. Rationally, responder should accept no matter what. There were 20 games, 10 with 10 other humans, and 10 with 10 computers. Some were "fair," others "unfair." all accept $5, most accept $3, and half or more reject $1 or $2. When asked why, many said they were angry because it was unfair. When received from a computer, more likely to accept "unfair," less likely to get emotional about a computer. Areas of the brain associated with negative emotions more activated in people who reacted strongly. PFC is activated the same for all offers, shows that maybe it only deals with demands of the task. Emotions are handled by the anterior insula, cognitive handled by PFC.
How are people's decisions about treatment options influenced by the person or group for whom they are making the decision?
Told 10% chance of dying from flu, or 5% if take vaccine. 48% said would take vaccine. shows omission bias: tendency to do nothing to avoid having to make a decision that could cause harm.
But when asked to make the decision for others, more likely to recommend that they have the shot, instead of themselves. People take into account that they will be held responsible for someone else if something bad happens. Shows how physicians present choices to their patients. They usually present info to patients and let them make the decisions, but but should be sensitive to emotional factors of people making decisions for themselves. Need to help make clear the trad-offs being faced.
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