AP Psych - Motivation (Unit 7)

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Terms in this set (45)
Glucosethe form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.Set pointthe point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.Basal metabolic ratethe body's resting rate of energy expenditure.Anorexia nervosaan eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.Bulimia nervosaan eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.Binge-eating disordersignificant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.Sexual response cyclethe four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.Refractory perioda resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.Sexual orientationan enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).Emotiona response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) wxpressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.James-Lange theorythe theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.Cannon-Bard theorytheory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotions.Two-factor theorythe Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.Facial feedbackthe effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.Catharsisemotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action of fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.Feel-good, do-good phenomenonpeople's tendency to be helpful when a;ready in a good mood.Well-beingself-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.Adaptation-level phenomenonpur tendency to form judgments )of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.Relative deprivationthe perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.Approach-approach conflictwhen conflicted between two choices that are equally attractive (as importance of decision increases, difficulty making the decision increases).Avoidance-avoidance conflictwhen conflicted between two choices that are equally unattractive.Approach-avoidance conflictwhen conflicted about a choice, there are both appealing and negative aspects to the decision you must make.Multiple-approach avoidance conflictwhen conflicted about a choice, one has to choose between both attractive and negative aspects of the available alternatives (multiple options).Health psychologya subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.Stressthe process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.Stressorthe stimuli causing the stress.Acute stresspsychological and physical response to a traumatic or terrifying event.Chronic stressresponse to stress over long periods of time. Causes a lot of damage.General adaptation syndrome (GAS)Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-alarm, resistance, exhaustion.Learned helplessnessthe hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.Type AFriedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.Type BFriedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.Psychophysiological illnessliterally, "mind-body" illness, any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.Need for achievement (n Ach)refers to an individual's desire for significant accomplishment, mastering of skills, control, or high standards.Flowa completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.