AP Psych - Personality (Unit 7)

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 44
Terms in this set (44)
FixationA lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.Defense mechanismsIn psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.RepressionIn psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.RegressionPsychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.Reaction formationPsychoanalytic defense mechanism in which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.ProjectionPsychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.RationalizationPsychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.DisplacementPsychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.SublimationPsychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re=channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.DenialPsychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.Collective unconsciousCarl Jung's concept of a shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.Archetypesthe universal, symbolic images that appear across cultures in myths, art, stories and dreamsInferiority complexstruggles in development where the child strives for control, superiority, and power.Compensationa way people hide something that they cannot do well, by doing something else really well.Projective testA personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT. that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.Rorschach inkblot testThe most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by HErmann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analysing their interpretations of the inkblots.Self-actualizationaccording to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.Conditions of worthtasks a child must complete or characteristics a child must have in order to be loved by or worthy of their parents.Unconditional positive regardAccording to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.Self-conceptall our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"TraitA characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.Personality inventoryA questionnaire (Often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)Most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. originally developed to identify emotional disorders (Still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other purposes.Big-five (five-factor) modelfive traits everyone has, rated on a continuum. Emotional stability, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, conscientiousness.Empirically derived testa test (such as the (MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.Social-cognitive perspectiveviews behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.Reciprocal determinismThe interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.Personal controlThe extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feel helpless.External locus of controlThe perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.Internal locus of controlThe perception that you control your own fate.Positive psychologyThe scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.SelfIn contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.Self-esteemfeelings of positive or negative regard for oneself