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NSCI 175 Exam 1 - learning objectives
Terms in this set (24)
The experimental method of analyzing the brain by breaking it into smaller pieces
study of the brain at the elementary level
study of how molecules work together to give neurons their special properties
study of how different neural circuits analyze sensory information
four steps of the scientific process
What was the neural theory championed by Golgi?
reticular theory - neurites are fused together
What was the neural theory championed by Cajal?
neuron doctrine - the neuron is the elementary functional unit of the brain (contact, not continuity)
What is the function of the axon?
communicates with different parts of the neuron
What is the effect of a larger axon?
How are neurons classified (5 ways)?
- number of neurites
- dendritic structure
- axon length
- gene expression
What are primary sensory neurons?
neurons that have neurites in the sensory surfaces of the body
What are motor neurons?
neurons that have axons which form synapses with muscle cells - command movements
What are interneurons?
Neurons that form connections with other neurons
What is the most numerous type of glial cell?
What are the functions of astrocytes? (4)
- influence growth/retraction
- regulate chemical content
- repair damage
Which myelinating cells are found in the CNS?
What is the role of microglial cells?
to remove dead neurons/glia (part of immune system)
Why is it difficult to determine the ratio of neurons to glia?
the ratio varies by region in the brain, and also is not comparable by species
What is the standard resting membrane potential voltage?
approximately -70 mV
How many sodium ions are pumped by the sodium/potassium pump at a time, and in which direction?
3 ions are pumped out of the cell (efflux)
How many potassium ions are pumped by the sodium/potassium pump at a time, and in which direction?
2 ions are pumped into the cell (influx)
Why does the neuron need resting membrane potential?
to create a gradient and produce electrical signals - electric potential allows for communication
What is the effect of K ions being at equilibrium?
there is no net movement across the cell membrane
What happens to the membrane potential when the cell is deprived of oxygen?
less ATP is produced, sodium/potassium pump stops/slows, concentration gradients are not maintained well
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