Terms in this set (57)
Label the following diagram of male reproductive system using the labels provided.
Testes (seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells), scrotum, epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, prostate gland, comper's gland, seminal vesicles, penis, urethra.
Labelled diagram of male reproductive system.
Produce spermatazoa (sperm) and the male hormone
Hold testes and allow testes to move in and out of the male body.
Produce sperm by meiosis from germ cells and then mitosis to increase number of sperm.
Ducts in which sperm mature.
Ductus (vas) deferens?
Store sperm and conducts semen to urethra.
Contributes basic (pH 7.5) fluid to semen
provide mucoid fluid for sperm travel.
Provide nutrients in the form of fructose for the sperm.
Organ of sexual intercourse.
Conducts the sperm through the penis (shared with the urinary system).
Cells in between seminiferous tubules that produce testosterone?
What is produced by the seminiferous tubules?
What is produced by the interstitial cells?
What is spermatogenesis?
The process of the production of sperm.
Describe the process of spermatogenesis.
Diploid cells in the seminiferous tubules undergo mitosis to produce 2 diploid cells called secondary spermatocytes. These 2 cells then undergo meiosis to produce 4 haploid cells. These haploid cells mature into 4 haploid sperm cells.
What is the pathway of a sperm cell from the seminiferous tubules to the urethral opening?
seminiferous tubule to epididymis to vas deferens to ejaculatory duct to urethra to urethral opening.
What are the components of seminal fluid and describe the function of each component?
1. Sperm - pass on genetic information
2. contains fructose for cellular respiration to provide energy for movement.
3. contain prostogandins - chemicals that stimulate uterine contraction to help sperm reach oviducts
4. mucons for lubrication
5. neutral H (7.5) to neutralize the pH in the vagina so sperm don't die.
Label the following diagram of a sperm cell.
Acrosome, head, middle piece, flagellum
Labelled diagram of sperm cell
What are the functions for each of the parts of a sperm cell (tail, middle piece, head, acrosome)?
Tail - flagellum to propel the spermatazoa
middle piece - contains mitochondria to provide energy (ATP) for movement
head - contains DNA in the nucleus (23 chromosomes)
acrosome - gap at front of head, containing hydrolytic enzymes needed to penetrate egg membrane.
What is the function of testosterone?
Hormone which is responsible for the development of primary sex characteristics in males and the later development of secondary sex characteristics in males. Testosterone is also essential for sperm maturation and sex drive.
What are primary sex characteristics and what are some of the male primary sex characteristics that are caused by the presence of testosterone?
Sex characteristics that genetically determined that distinguish males from females. They are the structures involved with reproduction.
Male primary sex characteristics:
- development of male sex organs
- functioning of male sex organs
- stimulation of sperm production
What are secondary sex characteristics and what are some of the male secondary sex characteristics that are caused by the presence of testosterone?
Sex characteristics that develop during puberty. These characteristics are not directly involved in reproduction.
Male secondary sex characteristics are:
- Facial hair
- large Adams apple - deep voice
larger/more muscle development
receding hair line
How does the brain help to control the male and female reproductive systems?
The hypothalamus region of the brain works together with the anterior pituitary gland to control reproduction.
How does the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary and testes regulate testosterone levels in the body?
1. The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
2. GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.
3. FSH stimulates sperm production in seminiferous tubules. LH stimulates testosterone production in interstitial cells of testes.
When testosterone levels are too high the testosterone inhibits hypothalamus and anterior pituitary so that less GnRH is produced.
Label the following diagram of the female reproductive system
Include the following labels:
ovary, oviducts (fallopian tubes), uterus, endometrium (lining of the uterus), cervix, vagina (birth canal)
Labelled diagram of female reproductive system front view.
Labelled diagram of female reproductive system side view.
ovaries (follicles and corpus luteum)?
Involved in the production of the ovum (egg) and its maturation before ovulation.
Secretion of progesterone and estrogen.
Oviducts (fallopian tubes)?
Conducts ovum from ovary to uterus.
May be area of fertilization.
Provides attachment for fetus and where placenta will develop on endometrium.
Lining of uterus which grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer in preparation to receive a fertilized egg so that it can provide it with nutrients. It develops into placenta for pregnancy.
Keeps uterus closed during pregnancy and opens for childbirth.
Holds penis during intercourse.
Becomes excited during intercourse and leads to orgasm.
Describe the functions of estrogen.
The primary female sex hormone. They promote the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics in females. They are also involved in regulation of the menstrual cycle.
Function of estrogen in primary sex characteristics in females.
Development of uterus and vagina at puberty.
Causes ovum (egg) maturation and follicle development
development of endometrium (lining of a uterus) during the proliferation phase of the uterine cycle.
Label the following diagram of an ovary that shows the various stages during the ovarian cycle.
1. Primary follicle contains a primary oocyte and produces estrogen.
2. Secondary follicle. The oocyte is more developed. Estrogen is secreted and a small amount of progesterone.
3. Vesicular follicle produces more estrogen.
4. Day 14 Ovulation occurs when oocyte is expelled (haploid egg cell.)
5. Corpus luteum is left and secretes high levels of progesterone and low levels of estrogen.
6. Corpus luteum degenerates if there is no eff implantation.
Describe the ovarian cycle and include the name of each of the stages and the days on which they occur.
Day 1-13 - Follicular phase: FSH from the anterior pituitary stimulates the development of the follicle and estrogen secretion.
Day 14: ovulation = release of the oocyte (haploid egg)
Day 15-28 - Luteal phase: LH from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the corpus luteum to secret progesterone. At the end of the luteal phase the corpus luteum degenerates and progesterone secretion drops and menstruation results.
A haploid egg cell.
release of egg from follicle on day 14 of ovarian cycle.
Average length of ovarian cycle?
Name the 2 female hormones.
Estrogen and progesterone.
Describe the sequence of events in the uterine cycle with reference to menstruation, the proliferative phase and the secretory phase.
Day 1-5: Menses (menstruation occurs)
Day 6-13: Proliferative phase (endometrium thickens)
Day 14-28: Secretroy phase (endometrium glands secrete nutritious fluids)
Describe the control of the ovarian cycle by hormones including GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone.
Hormonal messages synchronize ovarian cycle with related events in the uterus that are part of the menstrual cycle.
GnRH from the hypothalmus stimulates the anterior pituitary to increase its release of FSH and LH. FSH and LH stimulate the growth of the ovarian follicle. As the follicle grows it secretes more estrogen but it is still at relatively low levels so these low levels exert a negative feedback on the pituitary to keep FSH and LH relatively low in the pre-ovulatory phase. Just before ovulation estrogen peaks which stimulates the hypothalamus to release more GnRH which casues the anterior pituitary to relase a burst of LH and FSH. LH signals enzymes to rupture the follicle and allow ovulation. It also triggers the development of the corpus leuteum from the ruptured follicle and the secretion of estrogen and progesterone from the corpus leuteum. Therefore estrogen and progesterone peak after ovulation. High levels of estrogen and progesterone cause negative feedback on the hypothalamus and the pituitary causing falling levels of FSH and LH. LH drop is followed by degeneration of corpus luteum. The corpus leuteum then stops producing estrogen and progesterone. As levels of these hormones decline the pituitary will start producing FSH and LH again and the cylce will start over.
Describe the hormonal control of the uterine cycle.
The menstrual cycle is controlled by estrogen and progesterone. Around day 5 of the cycle the endometrium thickens due to rising levels of estrogen and then progesterone. Estrogen is initially secreted by the maturing follicle and then the corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone. When the levels of this hormone drops off due to the degeneration of the corpus luteum, the endometrium is sloughed off and then the menstrual period starts on day 1 of the new cycle.
Hormone produced by the Hypothalamus and its function in ovarian cycle?
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone). It regulates the secretion of LH and FSH by the pituitary.
Hormone produced by the pituitary and its function in the ovarian cycle?
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates the growth of ovarian follicle.
LH (lutenizing hormone) stimulates the growth of ovarian follicle and production of secondary oocyte; promotes ovulation; promotes development of corpus luteum and secretion of hormones.
Hormone produced by the ovarian follicle and its function in the ovarian cycle?
Estrogen which in low levels inhibits the pituitary; high levels stimulates the hypothalamus; promotes building of endometrium.
Hormone produced by the corpus luteum and its function in ovarian cycle?
Estrogen and progesterone which maintain endometrium; high levels inhibit hypothalamus and pituitary; sharp drops promote menstruation.
What happens during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
During the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle FSH promotes follicle maturation. The follicle produces increased levels of estrogen causing the endometrium to thicken during the proliferatile phase of the uterine cycle..
What happens during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?
LH promotes corpus luteum development. This produces increased levels of progesterone which causes the endometrium to become secretory. This is all in preparation for possible implantation.
what happens as a result of implantation?
Once implantation occurs the embryo produces human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). THis HCG enters the mothers blood and causes the corpus luteum to secrete high levels of progesterone and estrogen. These hormones maintain the endometrium so the baby can be nourished by the placenta. After 3 months the placenta secretes its own progesterone and estrogen and the embryo no longer needs to secrete its own HCG.
Describe a positive feedback mechanism involving oxytocin.
Stretch receptors in the uterine walls are stiumlated by the baby. These send nerve impulses to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus produces oxytocin which it sends to the posterior pituitary which secretes it into blood. Oxytocin hormone induces uterine contraction. These contractions stimulates further production of oxytocin which cause even further contractions. It is the only hormone the functions on positive feedback.
Name of only hormone that functions on positive feedback?
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