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Developmental Psych Chapter 2
The * quiz questions
Terms in this set (43)
*Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division that occurs to form
eggs and sperm
What is mitosis?
The reproduction of cells
Sources of variability
-Chromosomes in the zygote are not exact copies of those in the mother's ovaries & in the father's testes
-mutated genes-permanently altered segment
What is meiosis?
Cell division that produces sperm and eggs (gametes)
What is fertilization?
fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
What is a zygote?
*Vanda's genetic heritage comprising her actual genetic material makes up her...
What is a genotype?
a person's genetic makeup
What is a phenotype?
*Combining the genes of 2 parents in offspring increases___ in the population, which is valuable for a species because it provides more characteristics for natural selection to operate on.
*Most individuals who have the X-linked diseases are males because
males have only 1 copy of the X-chromosomes
*Charlie is a cooperative, attentive child and is a favorite at home and school; and he receives positive, instructive responses from adults. This is indicative of a(n):
evocative genotype-environment correlation
What is evocative gene-environment correlation?
the association between an individual's genetically influenced behavior and others' reactions to that behavior
What is passive genotype-environment?
the association between the genotype a child inherits from his or her parents and the environment in which the child is raised
What is active (niche-picking) genotype?
the association between an individual's genetic propensities and the environmental niches that individual selects
*Which of the following is the vascular organ that links the fetus to the mother's uterus
*During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST at risk of developing a structural defect due to the effects of a teratogen?
During the embryonic period
2 week period that begins after conception
-division of cells no organ development
- women produce HTG that determines if you're pregnant
occurs from week 2- week 8 after conception,
-cell differentiation rate intensifies
2 months after conception until birth
-formation of nervous system, end of embryonic
-neural tube develops into brain and spinal cord. Defect of neural tube is -Spina bifida
What is a teratogen?
an agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo. ex: medicines such as accutane, thalidomide, alcohol, drugs, caffeine, diet quality of eggs/sperm etc.
What are the stages of prenatal development?
germinal, embryonic, fetal
*Jerrold and his wife are considering medication options for the birth of their daughter. They decide on a method used to numb a woman's body from the waist down during the birthing process. They have chosen to use:
an epidural block
structures supporting birth
amniotic sac, placenta, umbilical cord
What is the purpose of pitocin (oxytocin)?
Stages of Birth
first stage- longest uterine contractions dilate at the cervix
second stage- baby's head moves through canal from pushing efforts, and the baby is finally out
third stage- the placenta detaches & is expelled
*When Elijah was born, his mother could hear the nurses mention an Apgar score of 9. She was ________, because the score means_______.
happy; Elijah is in good condition after birth
What is the apgar scale?
quick objective way to assess the health of newborns at 1 and 5 minute after birth. Score of 7-10 is ideal
--Low birth weight- less than 5 pounds at birth
--Very low birth weight-under 3 pounds
--Extremely low birth weight-under 2 pounds
*Dakota was born after weeks of gestation and weighed four pounds . Dakota would be considered:
Low birth weight
natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes, adaptive behaviors (crying, cuteness
emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior
Genetic Foundations of Development
Human life begins as a single cell
Nucleus of each cell contains chromosomes & DNA ; genes
Sex linked genes
When a mutated gene is carried on the x chromosome the result is called x linked inheritance
polygenically determined by the interaction of many different genes
Conditions in which a child has too few, too many, or incomplete chromosomes because of errors in the formation of sperm or ova. ex down syndrome
Gene X environment (GXE) interaction
Interaction of :
-Specific measured variation in the DNA
- Specific measured aspect of the environment
-It's more evidential of how heredity and environment influence each other
prenatal diagnostic testing
-Chorionic villus sampling, 35 years old or older
gerriatric. They take pictures of the baby's placenta that transfers the nutrients to the fetus
Amniocentesis 15 weeks cells from the amniotic fluid to detect birth defects
-Maternal blood screening, takes mom's blood (DNA) find out hormones and kids genders and finding risk
-Fetal MRI second trimester
Forms of Child Birth
Natural- baby leaves mother's body through birth canal
C-section: incision through skin and opening the uterus to remove the baby
Complications of childbirth
Anoxia- deprivation of oxygen for newborn, but hormones protect fetus in case of that
Consequences of low birth weight
- Learning disabilities
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
-autism spectrum disorders
- Breathing problems such as asthma
Interventions in neonatal intensive
kangaroo care- skin -to-skin contact with baby held against parent's bare chest
Birth and the Postpartum Period
Mother is psychologically and physically processing the childbirth (usually 6 weeks or longer)
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