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chapter 5-6 anatomy & physiology bones and muscles

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axial skeleton
the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body
appendicular skeleton
bones of the limbs and girdles
skeletal system
The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
compact bone
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone
spongy bone
Layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone.
long bones
bones that are longer than they are wide
short bones
Carpal, Tarsal
flat bones
thin, flattened, and usually curved, two thin layers of compact sandwiching spongey bone (skull, ribs, sternum)
irregular bones
come in a variety of shapes and are usually connected to other bones; examples are vertebrae and facial bones
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
periosteum
a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles
sharpey's fiber
secures periosteum to bone, also known as perforating fiber
epiphyses
ends of long bone
articular cartiage
Type of Hyaline Cartilage: Located at the ends of bones. It is called this because an articulation (joint) is a point of contact between two or more bones.
epiphyseal line
in adults; remnant of epiphyseal plate
yellow marrow
bone marrow that is yellow with fat; found at the ends of long bones in adults
red marrow
bone marrow of children and some adult bones that is required for the formation of red blood cells
osteocytes
Mature bone cells.
lucunae
small chambers that house osteocytes
lamellae
Concentric rings made up of groups of hollow tubes of bone matrix
canaliculi
small hair-like canals extending from the central canal. Allow for diffusion of nutrients, waste products, hormones, etc. to lacunae.
perforating canals
run into the compact bone at right angles to the shaft
ossification
the calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
flexion
bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
extention
Straightening of a body part
rotation
Moving the bone around in a central axis
abduction
Movement away from the midline
adduction
MOVEMENT TOWARD THE MIDLINE
circumduction
circular movement of joint, combining movements; possible in shoulder joint, hip joint, and trunk around a fixing point