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Terms in this set (54)
What are the benefits of exercise?
Improvement of heart function, less injury, better sleep habits, improved body composition, reduced stress, reduced BP, reduced blood cholesterol
What are the components of a sound exercise program?
1. Start slowly
2. Vary workouts; make it fun
3. Work out with friends and others
4. Set specific attainable goals and monitor progress
5. Set aside time each day to work out; make it convenient
6. Reward yourself for being successful
7. Don't worry about setbacks, focus on long-term benefits
What is the energy currency of the cell called?
What substance is the first line of defense to re-supply ATP?
What is the primary fuel for muscles?
What is the main fuel source during prolonged low-intensity activity?
What energy pathway provides the energy for sports activities lasting 30 seconds to 2 min. duration? For 2 min. to 3-4 hours?
When is the best time for athletes to adjust their weight?
During the off-season
What is carbohydrate loading and when is it recommended?
Maximizes carbohydrate (stored as glycogen) in muscles before an endurance event; Effective for events lasting > 60-90 min. or repeated shorter events in a 24 hour period
What are the protein requirements for athletes in different sports?
Recommended 0.8-1.7 g protein/kg body weight; up to 2.0 g/kg body weight for athletes beginning strength training
How can an athlete assess his/her fluid requirements?
Monitor color of urine; drink 1 1/2- 2 1/2 cups of fluid 2-3 hours before exercise; Drink 1/2 -1 1/2 cups every 15 min. for an even lasting longer than 30 min.
How many cups of liquid should an athlete drink for every lb. lost during exercise? How can the pounds lost during exercise be determined?
For every pound lost, drink 2 1/2 -3 cups of water during exercise; Weigh pre and post exercise
What does a good sports drink contain? When are they recommended?
Carbohydrates and electrolytes; Events > 60 min., especially in hot weather.
What are the general guidelines for pre-event meals? What is their purpose?
Should emphasize carbohydrates, low-fat and low-fiber, blended or liquified if consumed 1-2 hours before event (Promote rapid stomach emptying), fiber-rich foods days before event to clear out the bowels
What are ergogenic acids? Which are safe? Unsafe?
Aid to enhance athletic performance; Safe= Creatine, Sodium Bicarbonate, Caffeine; Possibly safe= HMB, Glutamine, Branched-chain amino acids; Unsafe= Anabolic steroids, Growth hormone, Blood doping, and GHB
What substance may increase free fatty acids in the blood?
Most athletes should consume what percent of their calories from carbohydrates? What other guidelines are also considered?
~ 60 kcal; Minimum of 5g/kg of body weight, and endurance athletes (> 60min duration) need 7-10 g/kg body weight
What are some possible explanations for why individuals develop eating disorders?
Response to a stressful event, illness, health concern, etc.
What are the general characteristics of eating disorders?
Sustained changes in eating patterns along with emotional, cognitive, and body perception changes
-Extreme weight loss, distorted body image, irrational fear of obesity and weight gain; Denial of appetite.
- Female-Caucasian-Middle/Upper Class-Competitive and obsessive-conflict in family.
-"Skin and bones" appearance (<18.5% of expected weight; BMI <17.5)- Lowered body temp-slow metabolic rate-decreased heart rate-tooth decay, etc.
-Intervention-Outpatient therapy-Day hospitalization-Nutrition therapy-Psycholgical and related therapy
-Periods of strict dieting, linked to intense hunger; loss of control over eating; lack of enjoyment of eating; consumption of large quantities of high-carb foods (3000 kcal)- 33%-75% calories still absorbed
-4% or more of adolescent and college-age women; ~10% of cases occur in men.
-Demineralization of teeth-Blood potassium can drop-Salivary glands swell-Stomach ulcers, bleeding, and esophageal tears- Constipation
-Team approach-Psychotherapy-Hospitalization-Nutrition counseling-Treatment groups-Medications
Female Athlete Triad
-Disordered eating-Lack of menstrual periods-Osteoporosis
-Women participating in appearance-based or endurance sports
-Multidisciplinary team-Gradually increase caloric intake-Multivitamin and calcium supplements-Reduce preoccupation with food- Achieve appropriate weight, etc.
Binge Eating Disorder
-Compulsive overeating (without purging) at least 2 times per week for at least 6 months-Food addiction
-About 40% are males-Isolate themselves-Perceive themselves as hungry more often than normal
-Depression or anxiety may trigger
-Professional help-Learn to respond to hunger-Avoid diets-Self help groups-Some medications
Night Eating Syndrome
-Evening hyperphagia and nocturnal awakening with ingestion of food
-Occurs in 1.5% of general population and 8.9% of those treated in obesity clinics
-Lack of hunger in the morning-Greater than 1/3 daily food intake after dinner- Difficulty falling asleep, need food to fall asleep-Waking at least once during the night to eat
-Produces feelings of guilt and shame-Depressed, especially at night
-Use of antidepressants can improve symptoms
What are some suggestions to try and prevent the development of eating disorders?
Discourage restrictive dieting, meal skipping, and fasting; Correct misconceptions; Provide info about normal changes that occur during puberty; Don't emphasize numbers on a scale; Encourage children to eat only when hungry
What is the definition of hunger? Malnutrition? Undernutrition? Famine?
Hunger = Physiological state that results from inadequate food intake.
Malnutrition = Condition of impaired development or function caused by either long-term deficiency or excess in energy and/or nutrient intake.
Undernutrition = Nutritional deficiency.
Famine = Extreme form of chronic hunger.
What are some causes of malnutrition in the US?
Eating disorders, alcoholism, homelessness, and nursing homes
What are some of the effects of semi starvation?
Lead to reduced reproductive capacity, decreased immunity, fatigue, decreased work output, and behavior problems
In addition to poverty, what are other factors in developing world that impact undernutrition?
Homelessness, War and Political/Civil unrest, rapid depletion of natural resources, inadequate shelter and sanitation, high external debt, and AIDS
What is the single most effective health advantage for a population?
Safe and convenient water supply
What are some possible solutions to reduce undernutrition in the developing world?
-Create independent, self-sustaining economies
-Economic opportunities and family planning for women
-Sustainable technologies for processing, preserving, marketing, and distributing nutritious local staples
-Ensure safe water supply
What is biotechnology and what is its impacts on food shortage problems in developing countries?
The use of biological systems to manufacture products; Synthesis of "super crop" that resists disease, pests, etc.
-May reduce undernutrition
-Improve nutritional content
-Increase crop yield
-Safety, environmental hazards, and other long-term concerns
What is the impact of undernutrition throughout the life cycle, and when is its impact most damaging?
Pregnancy- Period of greatest health risk due to high nutrient needs.
Fetal and infant stages- Greatest risk to fetus during gestation; reduced lung function; weakened immune system; long-term growth and development problems,
Childhood- Brain and nervous system vulnerable; poor children are at greatest risk; stunted growth, anemia.
Later Years- Especially older women living in poverty; Require nutrient-dense foods.
What continent has the bulk of the world's HIV/AIDS population?
What is the Green Revolution?
Increased crop yields in the 1970's. Increased use of fertilizers and irrigation; Careful plant breeding
What is sustainable agriculture and sustainable development?
Provides secure living for farm families; maintains the natural environment and resources; supports rural community; offers respect and fair treatment at all levels; social and economic equity
Most cases of food borne illness are caused by?
Greatest risk from viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites; Often due to poor food-handling practices at home
What are some of the reasons why food borne illness is common?
Transmitted through foods in which microorganisms are able to grow quickly; More people receive medications that suppress their ability to combat food borne infectious agents; Food industry trying to increase shelf life; More reliance on food prepared outside the home
What groups of people are most at risk for becoming ill from food borne illness?
Infants and children, older adults, those with liver disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and cancer, pregnant women, and people taking immunosuppressants agents
What are common symptoms of food borne illness?
Vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever
What are the various food preservation methods and how do they work?
Preventing growth of bacteria by decreasing water content (salt, sugar, drying); Exposure to heat (smoking); fermentation; aseptic processing; food irradiation (destroys cell walls and cell membranes, which kills microbes, and extends shelf life).
What is aseptic processing?
A process by which food and container are separately and simultaneously sterilized.
What is the difference between a food borne illness that is an infection and one that is an intoxication?
Infection = Microorganisms are ingested, invade the intestinal wall, and produce a toxin. Delayed onset of symptoms.
Intoxication = Microorganisms produce toxin in food, which is then ingested and causes illness. Rapid onset of symptoms.
What are food additives and how are they classified?
Limit spoilage by slowing growth of microbes, preserve color or flavor of foods. Vitamins E and C and sulfites are used to limit oxidation. C
Classified as intentional (directly added to foods, > 2,800 substances), and incidental ( indirectly enters foods through surface contact with processing equipment or packaging materials, 10,000 substances)
What is the GRAS list?
If a substance has been used in food for a long time, the manufacturer does not need to prove its safety.
Synthetical chemical is the same as the natural form.
What is the Delaney Clause?
Prevents the intentional (direct) addition to foods of a substance that causes cancer
What is the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act?
Focuses on prevention of food safety problems; allows for additional inspection and compliance among imported foods; directs the FDA to become involved with state and local authorities to improve food safety issues
How are food additives tested for safety? How does a new food additive receive approval for use?
Tested on at least two animal species; scientists determine highest dose that exhibits no observable effect, then divide that dose by at least 100 to establish margin of safety for human use
FDA must approve; must supply FDA with:
- Identity of new additive
- chemical composition
- how it is manufactured
- lab methods of measurement
- proof of safety
- cannot deceive public
What are some substances that occur naturally in foods that can cause illness?
Safrole (sassafrass), solanine (potato shoots), mushroom toxins, avidin (raw egg whites), thiaminase (raw clams and mussels), tetrodotoxin (puffer fish), oxalic acid (spinach,strawberries), herbal teas
What are some examples of chemicals contaminants in foods?
Acrylamide, cadmium, dioxin, lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, urethane
What are some general rules for preventing food borne illness?
Select frozen and perishable foods last when shopping; don't buy foods in damaged containers; purchase pasteurized juice, milk, and cheese; observe sell-by and expiration dates; wash hands for 20 sec before and after handling food; sanitize counters, cutting boards, dishes; separate cutting boards; thaw raw foods in fridge, under cold water, or microwave; cook beef and fish 145 degree F, pork 160 degree F, and poultry 156 degree F; Keep foods out of "danger zone" 40-140 degree F, reheat leftovers to 165 deg F, keep fridge below 40 deg F
What are some of the major organisms that cause food borne illness, and what are the food sources of contamination?
-Salmonella (Raw and undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, fish, produce, peanut butter, and unpasteurized milk)
-E Coli. (Undercooked ground beef; produce; unpasteurized juice and milk)
-Clostridium Perfringens (Beef, poultry, gravy, Mexican food)
-Listeria (Unpasteurized milk and soft cheeses, raw meats, uncooked vegetables, ready-to-eat deli meats and hotdogs)
-Staphylococcus Aureus (Ham, poultry, egg salads, cream-filled pastries, custards, and whipped cream)
-Clostridium Botulinum (Incorrectly home-canned vegetables, meats, and fish, oils bottled garlic, baked potatoes held at room temp, and honey)
Viruses from food borne illness
-Norovirus (Onset: 1-2 days, "stomach flu")
-Hep A (Onset: 15-50 days, lasts several weeks up to 6 months)
Programs in the US designed to address hunger and the populations they serve :
-School Lunch Program = Low income school-aged children
School Breakfast Program = Low income school-aged children
-Food Stamp Program = Low-income families
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