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Fernandez Theology Chapter's 7 and 8:
Terms in this set (90)
What is work?
A sustained effort with the intent to produce or accomplish something.
What is the objective dimension of work?
The product or outcome of work.
A farmer and his harvest.
What is part of the objective dimension of work:
4. Products of research.
7. The many service-oriented activities,
What is the subjective dimension of work?
The human person and their involvement in work.
The experience of the farmer as they navigate their job and the social/cultural climate that affects their livelihood.
According to the subjective dimension of work, the value of human work, and the basis of its dignity, rests in who?
What is the bottom line of work?
Work exists for human beings, not the other way around.
What is the purpose of work?
To help individuals reach their own potential and to support the human dignity of those their work serves.
What has priority over capital?
The human laborer.
What does work honor?
The gifts and talents that God has given to each one of us.
When did work begin to present itself in human life and how?
Before the fall, when God instructed Adam and Eve to "subdue the earth" and "cultivate and care" for God's creation.
Why do humans suffer with work?
Because we live in a fallen world.
T/F We have a duty to work.
Why are we not exempt from contributing our due in order to live at the expense of others?
Because you live in a human community and are called to communion with others.
The United States Bishops emphasize three moral and positive benefits to work:
1. Work benefits you as a human person (fulfillment).
2. Work benefits you as a provider (material needs).
3. Work benefits you as a member of society (well-being).
What does work unite?
Our suffering to Christ's suffering.
Through work, what can we share in?
God's saving plans for the world.
Our earthly work can help us participate in what?
The work of our own redemption.
Why is employment necessary?
Because it helps a person to earn a living and achieve human fulfillment.
Why would every economic system aim for full employment?
Because it is the foundation of a just society.
Although profit is right and necessary, profits cannot be treated as what?
How can a government decrease unemployment?
By creating conditions and policies that encourage employment opportunities.
Examples of Government policies that encourage employment opportunities:
1. Job training programs.
2. Investing in a new business.
3. Tax policies that balance economic growth and those in need.
What is a just wage?
A wage that provides enough to meet basic needs.
Workers benefit of a living wage:
1. Alleviates poverty among workers and their families.
2. Increases job satisfaction and worker morale.
3. Increases access to education, healthcare, childcare, and healthy living.
4. Increases worker bargaining power.
Business benefit of a living wage?
1. Lowered absenteeism, turnover rates, administrative costs and training costs.
2. Improved worker morale and quality of service.
3. PR and advertising advantages of Living Wage Certified businesses.
4. Contribution towards a more just and sustainable economy.
The local economy benefits of a living wage:
1. Reduced poverty rates and income income inequality.
2. Reduced wage disadvantages among minorities and women.
3. Less reliance by working people on social services.
4. Increased consumer spending by workers with higher incomes.
5. Increasing business and community support for just and sustainable jobs.
According to studies, how many children work?
Why is child labor sinful?
Because it prevents young minds and bodies from growing and learning.
In the developing world, how our wages typically handled?
Laborers earn a small fraction of what workers earn in the first world, usually over longer hours and with no insurance or benefits.
The worker has the right to assemble to address violations against what?
Rights, workers, etc.
Abuses in Adult Labor:
2. Misleading advertising.
3. Tax evasion.
4. Excess spending.
5. Irresponsible/wasteful work habits.
What is necessary in order for healthcare to be available for all?
Places where healthcare reforms are needed:
1. The areas of costs for treatments and medicine.
2. Reforms in the area law and medicine to limit frivolous lawsuits that lead to rising costs.
3. Fairness in insurance costs so that coverage can truly be universal.
Who was Cesar Chavez?
A Mexican-American Union leader and labor organizer who formed the National Farm Workers Association.
What did Chavez boycott?
Grape Growers in California?
What group joined alongside Chavez?
The Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee.
What group formed from the merging between The National Farm Workers Association and Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee?
The United Farm Workers.
Was Chavez's strike successful?
What happened to the Triangle Shirtwaist Company on March 25th, 1911?
Their factory in New York City burned down, killing 145 workers.
How were the factory deaths easily preventable?
Most of the victims died as a result of neglected safety features and locked doors within the factory.
What did the fire lead to?
A series of laws and regulations that better protected the safety of workers.
What was the Industrial Revolution?
A period of rapid progress in the manufacturing of goods.
What did the Industrial Revolution result in?
Two economic systems, each responsible for violations against the dignity of work.
What is Rerum Novarum?
An 1891 encyclical published by Pope Leo XIII that addressed the dangers of communism and "unregulated capitalism"
What is capitalism?
The means of production owned by private persons.
What are some rights given by capitalism?
Private property and unionization.
What did John Paul II say about "unbridled capitalism"?
He said that it leads to "instances of contracts between employers and employees which lack reference to the most elementary justice regarding the employment of children or women, working hours, the hygienic condition of the workplace and fair pay."
What is socialism?
The means of production owned by the government.
What rights do you not have in socialism?
The right to private property and to unionize.
What did Pope Benedict XVI say about socialism?
"We do not need a state which regulates and controls everything, but a state which, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, generously acknowledges and supports initiatives arising from the different social forces and combines spontaneity with closeness to those in need."
What did John Paul II say about man?
"Man is the source, the center, and the purpose of all economic and social life."
What does each person need to guard against?
What is Greed?
The desire for Earthly goods beyond our needs.
What is Consumerism?
A social and economic order that encourages the purchase of goods in ever greater amounts.
What does Luke 15:12 say?
Then [Jesus] said to the crowd, "Take care to guard against all greed, for though one may be rich, one's life does not consist of possessions."
Any life in balance must be centered in who?
What is Fair Trade U.S.A.?
An organization that teaches disadvantaged communities how to use the free market to their advantage.
How was the image of a body used in 1 Corinthians 12?
Saint Paul used the image of a body to show that all people are interconnected.
What does Catholic mean?
What does Catholicity mean?
That the Church is universal "because she has been sent out by Christ on a mission to the whole human race."
What is solidarity?
The realization that all people are interconnected as part of one human family.
It is a mark of Catholicity and a moral virtue.
What did John Paul II say about solidarity?
That it is a moral virtue of true, resolute compassion that leads to a firm commitment to the common good.
According to John Paul II, the only way to overcome the negative attitudes or structures that are rooted in society is to?
"Loss yourself for the other person."
What does the Second Vatican Council say about concern for our neighbor?
It transcends the confines of national communities and has increasingly broadens its horizon to the whole world.
What does the Second Vatican Council say about solidarity?
The sense of solidarity has increased as time goes on.
What did Emma Lazarus describe the Statue of Liberty as?
An actual being who would lead foreigners to freedom.
What is emigration?
Migration from the perspective of leaving's one's country.
T/F: Countries who have a large amount of people leaving their country have a duty to address the reasons why people are leaving.
What is immigration?
Migration from the perspective of the country receiving those who are moving.
What must authorities keep in mind when developing laws regarding immigration?
The common good.
What does the book Welcoming the Stranger Among Us: Unity in Diversity say about Immigration?
Affluent countries need to welcome those in poor or struggling countries with open arms.
Prosperous nations have a moral obligation to welcome immigrants and refugees only if?
They are able to treat them as guests and provide basic needs to them.
What do immigrants need to follow and respect?
They need to follow the laws and respect the customs of their new country.
What did John Paul II say about solidarity?
We are called to stand in solidarity with immigrants and refugees and care for them.
What is the Just War Doctrine?
A criteria to help determine when way is justified and morally permissible.
The Church's war Doctrine addresses the following:
1. The conditions under which armed force might be used in conflict.
2. The limits should constrain resort to force.
3. Ethical norms to restrain damage caused by military forces in a war.
The Church holds that all of the following criteria must be met before a government can legitimately declare war and subsequently use lethal force:
1. Just Cause, where The damage inflicted by the aggressor on a nation must be lasting, grave, and certain.
2. Legitimate Authority, where Those declaring a war of defense have the legitimate responsibility to represent the people and are entrusted with the common good.
3. Right intention, where War is waged for the best of reasons and with a commitment to postwar reconciliation with the enemy.
4. Probability of Success, where The odds of success should be weighed against the human cost of the war.
5. Proportionality, where The damage to be inflicted and the costs to be incurred by the war must be proportionate to the good expected.
6. Last Resort, where War must be a last resort, justifiable only if all peaceful efforts have been tried and exhausted and there are no alternatives.
What is pacifism?
The attitude that prefers peace and non-violence rather than the use of violent force to make peace.
The authentic pacifist understands what?
As a last resort, lethal force must be used to defend oneself or the vulnerable.
Why is terrorism not morally permissible?
Because it is destructive to human life and to society, and because it uses fear to coerce society.
What are absolute pacifists?
People who refuses to kill, whatever the circumstances, even in self-defense.
What are conditional pacifists?
People who generally opposes war, but may accept there are times when it is necessary.
When you're country is invaded and you are defending your family and country.
What are selective pacifists?
People who will decide whether a war is morally justified or not.
they may refuse to fight for their country if they feel that their country is engaging in an unjust war. Selective pacifists may particularly oppose war using weapons of mass-destruction, e.g. nuclear weapons, biological weapons.
What is prejudice?
A preconceived opinion of somebody based on race, ancestry, religion, etc.
What is Racism?
The belief that one particular race is superior or inferior to another.
Why is racism sinful?
Because it leads to the mistreatment of people based on a false belief that race predetermines traits and abilities.
Why is racism an offense against solidarity?
Because it de its the dignity of the other.
What is Civil disobedience?
The public act of willfully disobeying the law and/or the commands of an authority figure, to make a political statement.
Charges for civil disobedience:
2. Failure to disperse.
3. Failure to obey an officer.
Civil disobedience is generally understood to be violent.
False, Although some have argued that violent acts can also be considered a form of civil disobedience.
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