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MERP Immunology Mini 1

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Cells of the immune system
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Terms in this set (95)
1. Originate from hematopoietic stem cell in bone marrow.
2. Gives rise to two major lineages:
a) myeloid progenitor cell that gives rise to: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, meagakaryocytes, granulocytes and mast cells
b) lymphoid progenitor cell that gives rise to: T cells (matures in thymus), B cells, natural killer (NK) and dendritic cells
1. Surface wound introduces bacteria that activate resident effector cells to secrete cytokines
2. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability allow fluid, protein and inflammatory cells to leave blood and enter tissue
3. Capillary endothelial cells shrink and increase expression of adhesion molecules so inflammatory cells can bind and go through spaces into tissue
1. Attract other leukocytes to the infection site
2. Signal blood vessel endothelial cells to express more adhesion molecules so leukocytes can stick and move between endothelial cells to enter tissues
3. Increase amount of fluid that can leave the circulation to antibacterial molecules enter the infection site
4. Signal bone marrow to produce more leukocytes
Stem cell differentiates when B cell encounters antigen. Differentiation occurs in sequential steps characterized by particular changes in Ig gene expression and patterns of Ig protein expression. At the pro-B cell and pre-B cell stages, failure to express functional antigen receptors (Ig heavy chain and Ig light chain, respectively) results in cell death via apoptosis. B cells proliferate and develop into either plasma or memory cells.
1. Heavy chain allelic exclusion: 1st wins
2. RAG recognizes RSS and brings VDJ segments closer together during recombination
3. DJ gene segment recombined; excess DNA deleted
4. joining of V gene to DJ complex forms VDJ gene; excess DNA deleted
5. TdT patches up holes with random nucleotides
6. Primary RNA is generated containing heavy chain VDJ region and both constant mu and delta chains
7. Primary RNA processed: poly-A tail added after Cμ chain; sequence between VDJ segments removed
8. μmRNA translation produces Ig μ heavy chain protein expressed on pre-B cell surface
1. Allelic exclusion mom/dad κ or λ chain: random
2. RAG recognizes RSS and brings VJ segments closer together during recombination
3. joining of the V and J give a VJ complex
4. TdT patches up holes with random nucleotides
5. Translation of the spliced mRNA for either the kappa or lambda chains results in formation of the Ig κ or Ig λ light chain protein.
6. Assembly of Ig μ heavy chain and one of the light chains results IgM expressed immature B cell surface