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39 terms

Biology Genetics Exam

test #2
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The punnett square shows that the gene for pea shape and and the gene for pea color
are linked
The principles of probability can be used to
predict the traits of the offspring produced by genetic crosses
A punnett square shows all the following except
the actual results of a genetic cross
In the P generation, a yellow pea plant was crossed with a green pea plant. If alleles did not segregate during gamete formation
all of the F1 plants would be green
Gregor Mendel's principles of genetics apply to
all organisms
I observe a cell going through some sort of meiosis and at the end there is one big cell and three tiny ones. What type of cell have i just watched form?
An ova
During which step of meiosis does independent assortment take place
metaphase I
How can you be sure of an individual's genotype by looking at it?
If its phenotype is recessive
The principle of dominance states that
some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
Crossing-over rarely occurs in mitosis, unlike meiosis. Why?
Tetrads rarely form during mitosis
If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is
6
If you made a punnett square showing Gregor Mendel's cross between true-breeding tall plants and true-breeding short plants, the square would show that offspring had
a genotype that was different from that of both parents
What trait of pea plants was NOT studied by Gregor Mendel
gamete formation
Alleles for the same gene separate. This is called
the law of segregation
if a pea plant RrYy is crossed with a pea plant RRYy how many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to show
2
A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self polllinate,
some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short
The number of chromosomes in a somatic cell is represented by the symbol
2N
How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by pea plant whose genotype is RrYy?
4
How would I know I was looking at a trait controlled by more than one gene?
it would have a range of phenotypes with the majority of individuals having a moderate phenotype
I cross two fruit flies and observe the following phenotypic ration with their offspring: 9:3:3:1. Which of the following crosses was most likely the cross that produced this ratio?
LlRrxLlRr
When Gregor Mendel crossed a wrinkled pea plant with a smooth pea plant, the F1 plants inherited
an allele for smooth peas from the smooth pea parent and an allele for wrinkled peas from the wrinkled pea parent
If a pea plant has a recessive allele for wrinkled peas, it will produce
wrinkled peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for smooth peas
Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
haploid cells
Which of the following assort independently?
chromosomes
Organisms that have two different alleles for a particular trait are said to be
heterozygous
Gregor Mendel concluded that some traits are
not inherited by offspring
What principle states that during gamete formation alleles for the same gene separate without influencing each other's inheritance?
principle of segregation
A cross of a black chicken (BB) with a white chicken (WW) produces all gray offspring (BW). This type of inheritance is known as
Incomplete dominance
In the punnett square which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross
about half are expected to be short
Gametes have
one allele for each gene
In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. Short plants reappeared in the F2 generation because
the allele for shortness and the allele for tallness segregated when the F1 plants produced gametes
A situation in which phenotypes for both alleles of a particular gene are equally expressed is termed
Codominance
In the P generation, a tall plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F2 plant will be tall is
100%
Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers of some plants in order to
make controlled crosses the between plants
Many species of plants grown for food are hybrids, what does this mean
they are different from a cross of parents with different alleles
Variation in human skin color is an example of
polygenic traits
Gametes are produced by the process of
meiosis
Which word means the same as "chemical traits"
genes
A male and female bison that are both heterozygous for normal skin pigmentation (Aa) produce an albino offspring (aa). Which of Mendel's principles explains why the offspring is albino?
dominance and segregation