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58 terms

SPC 101-Test One

STUDY
PLAY
human communication
consists of the sending and receiving of verbal and nonverbal messages between two or more people
intrapersonal communication
the communication you have with yourself
interpersonal communication
occurs when you interact with a person with whom you have some kind of relationship
interviewing
communication that proceeds by question and answer
small group/team communication
communication among groups of five to ten people and may take place face-to-face or in virtual space
public communication
communication between a speaker and an audience
computer-mediated communication
a general term that includes all forms of communication between people that take place through some kind of computer
asynchronous
does not take place in real time
synchronous
occur at the same time
mass communication
communication from one source to many receivers who may be scattered throughout the world
models
representations
source
speaker
receiver
listener
encoding
putting ideas into speech
decoding
taking sound waves out of code
feedforward
information you provide before sending your primary messages
phatic communication
small talk
metamessage
a message that refers to another message
channel
the vehicle or medium through which messages pass
noise
anything that interferes with your receiving a message
communication competence
refers to your knowledge and understanding of how communication works and your ability to use communication effectively
mindfulness
a state of awareness in which you're conscious of your reasons for thinking or behaving
mindlessness
you lack conscious awareness of what or how you're thinking
power
the ability to influence the thoughts and behavior of others
objective view of ethics
the rightness or wrongness of an act is absolute and exists apart from the values or beliefs of any individual or culture
subjective view of ethics
absolute statements about right and wrong are too rigid and that the ethics of a message depends on the culture's values and beliefs as well as on the particular circumstances
communication accommodation theory
speakers adjust to, or accommodate to, the speaking style of their listeners in order to gain, for example, social approval and greater communication efficiency
ambiguity
the condition in which something can be interpreted in more than one way
legitimate power
when others believe you have a right to influence or control others' behaviors
referent power
when others wish to be like you
reward power
when you control the rewards that others want
coercive power
when you have the ability to administer punishments to or remove rewards from others if they do not do as you wish
expert power
when others see you as having expertise or special knowledge
information power
when others see you as having the ability to communicate logically and persuasively
punctuation of communication
the segmenting of the continuous stream of communication into smaller pieces
culture
consists of the beliefs, ways of behaving, and artifacts of a group
ethnic identity
a commitment to the beliefs and philosophy of your culture
ethnocentrism
the tendency to see others and their behaviors through your own cultural filters, often as distortions of your own behaviors
self-concept
your image of who you are
looking-glass self
you'd look at the image of yourself that others reveal to you through the way they communicate with you
self-esteem
a measure of how valuable you think you are
self-disclosure
a type of communication in which you reveal information about yourself
dyads
groups of two people
dyadic effect
what one person does, the other person also does
perception
your way of understanding the world
selective attention
you attend to those things that you anticipate will fulfill your needs or will prove enjoyable
selective exposure
you tend to expose yourself to information that will confirm your existing beliefs, will contribute to your objectives, or will prove satisfying in some way
schemata
mental templates or structures that help you organize the millions of items of information you come into contact with every day as well as those you already have in memory
script
a type of schema that focuses on an action, event, or procedure
self-fulfilling prophecy
a prediction that comes true because you at on it as if it were true
halo effect
if you believe a person has some positive qualities, you're likely to infer that she or he also possesses other positive qualities
stereotype
a fixed impression of a group of people
attribution
explaining why someone behaved as he or she did
self-serving bias
when you take credit for the positive and deny responsibility for the negative
overattribution
the tendency to single out one or two obvious characteristics of a person and attribute everything that person does to this one or these two characteristics
fundamental attribution error
occurs when you overvalue the contribution of internal factors
positive face
the desire to be viewed positively by others, to be though of favorably
negative face
the desire to be autonomous, to have the right to do as you wish