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human communication

consists of the sending and receiving of verbal and nonverbal messages between two or more people

intrapersonal communication

the communication you have with yourself

interpersonal communication

occurs when you interact with a person with whom you have some kind of relationship


communication that proceeds by question and answer

small group/team communication

communication among groups of five to ten people and may take place face-to-face or in virtual space

public communication

communication between a speaker and an audience

computer-mediated communication

a general term that includes all forms of communication between people that take place through some kind of computer


does not take place in real time


occur at the same time

mass communication

communication from one source to many receivers who may be scattered throughout the world








putting ideas into speech


taking sound waves out of code


information you provide before sending your primary messages

phatic communication

small talk


a message that refers to another message


the vehicle or medium through which messages pass


anything that interferes with your receiving a message

communication competence

refers to your knowledge and understanding of how communication works and your ability to use communication effectively


a state of awareness in which you're conscious of your reasons for thinking or behaving


you lack conscious awareness of what or how you're thinking


the ability to influence the thoughts and behavior of others

objective view of ethics

the rightness or wrongness of an act is absolute and exists apart from the values or beliefs of any individual or culture

subjective view of ethics

absolute statements about right and wrong are too rigid and that the ethics of a message depends on the culture's values and beliefs as well as on the particular circumstances

communication accommodation theory

speakers adjust to, or accommodate to, the speaking style of their listeners in order to gain, for example, social approval and greater communication efficiency


the condition in which something can be interpreted in more than one way

legitimate power

when others believe you have a right to influence or control others' behaviors

referent power

when others wish to be like you

reward power

when you control the rewards that others want

coercive power

when you have the ability to administer punishments to or remove rewards from others if they do not do as you wish

expert power

when others see you as having expertise or special knowledge

information power

when others see you as having the ability to communicate logically and persuasively

punctuation of communication

the segmenting of the continuous stream of communication into smaller pieces


consists of the beliefs, ways of behaving, and artifacts of a group

ethnic identity

a commitment to the beliefs and philosophy of your culture


the tendency to see others and their behaviors through your own cultural filters, often as distortions of your own behaviors


your image of who you are

looking-glass self

you'd look at the image of yourself that others reveal to you through the way they communicate with you


a measure of how valuable you think you are


a type of communication in which you reveal information about yourself


groups of two people

dyadic effect

what one person does, the other person also does


your way of understanding the world

selective attention

you attend to those things that you anticipate will fulfill your needs or will prove enjoyable

selective exposure

you tend to expose yourself to information that will confirm your existing beliefs, will contribute to your objectives, or will prove satisfying in some way


mental templates or structures that help you organize the millions of items of information you come into contact with every day as well as those you already have in memory


a type of schema that focuses on an action, event, or procedure

self-fulfilling prophecy

a prediction that comes true because you at on it as if it were true

halo effect

if you believe a person has some positive qualities, you're likely to infer that she or he also possesses other positive qualities


a fixed impression of a group of people


explaining why someone behaved as he or she did

self-serving bias

when you take credit for the positive and deny responsibility for the negative


the tendency to single out one or two obvious characteristics of a person and attribute everything that person does to this one or these two characteristics

fundamental attribution error

occurs when you overvalue the contribution of internal factors

positive face

the desire to be viewed positively by others, to be though of favorably

negative face

the desire to be autonomous, to have the right to do as you wish

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