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Gilded Age and Progressive Era USH Test
Terms in this set (45)
The people were hoping for a strong military leader
Why was Grant elected?
-he lacked political experience
-scandal and corruption plagued his administration
Why was Grant's administration considered a failure?
Thomas Durant oversold railroad bonds at an inflated price, while US politicians pocketed the extra money
Whiskey distillers bribed Treasury Department agents, who in turn helped the distillers evade taxes
-The agents would neglect to collect a duty of 70 cents per gallon, then split the bonus profits
-Benefit large corporate bosses, who could control the politicians, ensuring their company's interests were take care of
-Political bosses control votes, candidates, and voting
-Political boss gives politician votes--> Politician gets money from contractor--> Political boss gets money from overpriced contract
How had the spoils system evolved from the Jackson Administration?
-main local political machine of the Democratic party; played a major role in controlling NY politics
-defrauded US government out of millions of dollars through their group of corrupt politicians
Politician controlling Tammany hall
A way of laundering money back to yourself by paying 3rd party far more than they need (govt money), then that same 3rd party sending the extra money back to you
What is the patronage/kickback system?
-they showed little personality or boldness, didn't really do much
-overshadowed by more famous presidents
-Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison
Why were the Forgotten Presidents called this?
-Return to normalcy
-Allow the country to have recovery time after the Civil war
-wanted conservative leaders to help businesses succeed, no big government
Why did voters vote for the "Forgotten Presidents?"
-Laissez-faire: government leaves economy alone so as not to prevent growth
-creates problems with unethical working conditions, wages, etc
What policies made the 2nd Industrial Revolution possible?
-Social Darwinism: Rich, prominent people work hard and deserve status, while poor people are lazy and inferior
-Social classes were further divided by big businesses vs low-class workers, which created an economical divide.
-Unions vs Corporations, as well as underlying idea/racism that some people are inherently low class
Ideas that justified increasing social stratification?
Duty of big business owners is to contribute to society
-he builds libraries, institutions, etc
Carnegie's response to 2nd industrial revolution?
The power lies in the lower class, as they have the ability to create value in a substance (labor value theory).
-one day working class will rise up and overthrow aristocrats, creating a classless society
Marx's response to 2nd industrial revolution?
-Vanderbilt: railroads (mainly NY central railroad)
Who were the tycoons and what were their industries?
creating a system where one resource comes from one source (aka one company; say, oil). The company then has the ability to grossly inflate oil prices and crush all competition, forcing people to buy it at a higher price (from their company), because they can't get it anywhere else.
greatly lowering the price of a product in order to drive competitors out of business. Once you are the only supplier of the product, prices rise higher again.
discounts given on bulk purchase or sale of goods and commodities to a consumer (Ex: buying so much cotton in bulk, that you get a huge discount on it, while everyone else pays more than full price to make up the difference).
threats, bullying, etc
What were the unscrupulous business practices?
-No, regulation loopholes made regulation ineffective
-Interstate Commerce Act
-Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Was the regulation of business successful?
outlawed railroad rebates and kickbacks
Interstate Commerce Act
-attempted to outlaw big trusts and monopolies
-wasn't very successful, hindered competition to big business
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
-Rapid development in the South and west means millions of new farmers, so the supply increases
-Problem: more farmers and new techniques, leads to large surpluses (lower prices)
-Many borrow money to put new land under cultivation
Surpluses and Prices for Farmers (Populism)
increased rates/prices for common goods
Tariffs (populism for farmers)
unregulated railroad prices
Railroad (populism for farmers)
*By the mid-1890s: farmers ruined
-Low prices, unregulated railroad prices
-McKinley Tariff Act (1890)
-Depression of 1893 (1890)
Populism: Conditions for Farmers... Result?
Farmers who migrated from the Republican party and formed the Farmers Alliance, which becomes the Populist party
Where did the populist party originate from?
-Government ownership of railroad and telephone companies (standardize rates)
-Immigration restrictions (protect US workers)
-Single terms for president (avoid corruption)
-Shorter work days (benefit workers)
What did the Populist party want, and how would these help?
They lost support because of racism (afraid populist movement would empower black people)
Why did the Populist party end?
-Republican William McKinley (pro-business)
-Democrat William Jennings Bryan (populist inspired, farmers rights)
Platforms of the Election of 1896
McKinley wins by outspending Bryan, thanks to the management of Mark Hanna
Who won the Election of 1896?
Urban middle class, pro-business wins over agrarian interests and Republicans would hold White House for 28 of the next 36 years
Why was the Election of 1896 a realigning election?
Promoted the view that government was a force for public good, not just an advocate for special interests
What did progressives want/promote?
-took office after McKinley was assassinated
-he wins the 1904 election in a landslide, continued to promote progressive policies
-prioritized conservation and established national parks to preserve natural resources
How did Roosevelt take office?
He said he was Republican but he promoted progressive policies such as environmental conservation
How was Roosevelt a RINO?
-regulating big business
-conservation of natural resources
Roosevelt's "Square Deal" agenda?
Investigative journalists who sought to expose injustice and corruption to spark social change
-Jacob Ril's "How the Other Half Lives"
-Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
-Ida Tarbell's "History of the Standard Oil Company"
Examples of Muckrakers?
To attract readers, newspapers would print sensationalist stories to increase circulation, although it wasn't always actual news
Wisconsin governor and senator that pushed for progressive reform
Who was Robert La Follette?
-workers compensation and workplace regulation
-environmental protection laws
-higher taxes on railroads and other corporations
-first modern state income tax
La Follette's Progressive policies?
-a landmark 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the "separate but equal" doctrine.
-The case stemmed from an 1892 incident in which African American train passenger refused to sit in a car for Black people. Rejecting Plessy's argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Supreme Court ruled that a law that "implies merely a legal distinction" between white people and Black people was not unconstitutional.
What was Plessy v. Ferguson about?
As a result, restrictive Jim Crow legislation and separate public accommodations based on race became commonplace in the south (primarily)
Significance of Plessy v. Fergeson?
Supply, Demand, Equilibrium graph
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