Energy systems

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Energy continuumSystems really work independently from one another and athletes really is just one energy system in their event. The contribution of all three energy systems for the re-synthesis of ATP at the same time is based upon intensity and duration.Contribution of energy for exercise1-3s (anaerobic, ATP in muscles, a punch) 3-10s (anaerobic, ATP + PC, 100m) 10-45s (anaerobic, ATP + PC and muscle glycogen, 200m) 45s-2m (anaerobic lactic, muscle glycogen, 400m) 2-4m (anaerobic and aerobic, muscle glycogen and lactic acid, 1500m) 4m+ (aerobic, muscle glycogen and fatty acids, marathon)ATP, ADP and ADP + PATP formed when ADP binds with phosphate. When so needs energy it breaks bond between phosphate groups to form ADP and phosphate molecule. Energy stored in chemical bonds when this bond is broken energy is releasedHow is ATP like a battery?Convert and ATP to ADP releases energy and allows muscular contraction but this screams energy stores. Find any phosphate back to ADP recent sizes (re-charges) 80p. This can be done using different systems.Advantages of ATP-PC systemATP can be re-synthesised rapidly. PC stores are resynthesised quickly. Nicety can buy products. Use of creating supplements can extend the time that ATP-PC system can be used for.Disadvantages of the ATP-PC systemOnly a limited supply of PC in muscle cells (~8s). Only one molecule of ATP can be V synthesise for every molecule of PC. PC resynthesised can only take place in the presence of oxygen (when exercise intensity is reduced).Anaerobic glycolysisATP is made by partial breakdown of muscle glycogen and glucose. Energy is then released to resynthesised 2 ATP.Production of lactic acidLactic acid produced as a product of anaerobic glycolysis. During this process hydrogen ions are released into muscle cells. Without oxygen these hydrogen ions can't be removed so muscle cell becomes increasingly acidic (burning sensation). Recovery time to remove this is ~8mins.Advantages of anaerobic glycolysis systemProduces to ATP. Provide more ATP due to large amount of glycogen in body. A few chemical reactions to can be provided quickly. No oxygen needed.Disadvantages of anaerobic glycolytic systemNot as Quick as ATP-PC system. Lactic acid is a byproduct and make this muscles burn and fatigue. Only lasts 40 seconds at high intensity and three minutes at low intensity.Aerobic systemThis process utilises fats carbohydrates and sometimes proteins for re-synthesising ATP. Aerobic respiration produces far more ATP (36/38) but a lot more slowly and not as much power.Aerobic System process1. Aerobic glycolysis in muscle sarcoplasm (glycogen, glucose, pyruvic acid (2 ATP). Pyruvic acid + coenzyme A = acetyl CoA) 2. Krebs cycle and mitochondria matrix (Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic acid = citric acid. H+ removal from citric acid and taken to ETC. Co2 + 2ATP produced) 3. Electron transport chain in mitochondria Christae (H+ splits into hydrogen ions and electrons. Ions oxidised to form H20 and electrons provide energy to resynthesis size 34ATP)Three steps of aerobic system1. Aerobic Glycolysis (muscle sarcoplasm) 2. Krebs cycle (mitochondria matrix) 3. Electron transport chain (mitochondria cristae)Aerobic system - aerobic glycolysisGlycolysis in present of O2, creates pyruvic acid with no lactate byproduct so it's different to anaerobic glycolysis. This process generates two molecules of ATP.Aerobic system - Krebs cycleThe main purpose of the crab cycle is to generate hydrogen to transfer to the electron transport chain where it can control acidity and enable the aerobic system to keep synthesise and ATP. 1. Acetylene CoA + Oxaloacetic acid = citric acid 2. Hydrogen and CO2 are removed from citric acid. CO2 is breached out and hydrogen goes to ETC 3. Generates two molecules of ATPAerobic system - electron transport chain1. Hydrogen ions from Krebs cycle are carried to ETC by carrier molecules (NAD + FAD) 2. H ions i'll transfer to carrier molecules in bedded in ETEC where they go through series of chemical reactions 3. H is split into hydrogen ions and electrons and charged with a potential energy. Hydrogen ions are oxidised which produces H2O as byproduct, hydrogen electrons are charged which provides energy to re-synthesise ATP 4. 32/34 ATP are formed during this processAdvantages of aerobic system- lots of ATP produced (32/34) - no fatiguing byproducts (just Co2 + water) - body has large amount of glycogen and triglyceride stores so exercise can last a long timeDisadvantages of aerobic system- complicated system so cannot be used straightaway. Takes a few minutes to start working properly. - fatty acid transportation to muscles is slow and requires 15% more oxygen to be broken down than glycogenATP generation in fast twitch muscle fibres (type IIx)Main pathway for ATP production is through anaerobic glycolysis (lactate). Not very efficient as only 2 ATP produced. Very fast production but cannot last for as long as fibres have least resistance to fatigue.ATP generation in slow twitch muscle fibres (type I)Main pathway for ATP production is aerobic system. Produces large amounts of ATP (36/38 ATP). Production is slow but fibres are insurance based say less likely to fatigue.Lactate threshold and OBLAWe are constantly producing small amounts of lactate. As exercise intensity increases from aerobic to anaerobic the point it crosses is lactic threshold (above 2mmol per l blood above resting levels). When intensity increases body can't produce enough oxygen to breakdown lactate and the accumulation of this is known as OBLA. OBLA gives an indication of endurance capacity. Those who work at a higher intensity before OBLA can delay when the threshold occurs.Lactate thresholdThe point during exercise at which lactic acid quickly acuminate in the bodyOBLAOnset of Blood Lactate Accumulation The point when lactate levels go above 4 mmol per lFive factors affecting lactate accumulation- exercise intensity - muscle fibre type - rate of blood lactate removal - respiratory exchange ratio - fitness of a performerWhy does lactate cause muscle fatigue?As more lactate appears in the muscles more hydrogen ions are present and these ions increase acidity. This increase in acidity slows down enzyme activity affecting like on assess causing muscle fatigue. Lactate produced in the muscle defuses into the blood and blood lactate can be measured.How does exercise intensity affect the rate of lactate accumulation?The higher the intensity of exercise the faster OBLA will occurEPOCexcess post-exercise oxygen consumption The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would've been consumed at rest during the same time (extra oxygen you can seem to repair what you owe). It's split into alactacid and lactacid componentsAlactacid ComponentFast replenishment - 3mins Restores ATP, Pc and re-saturates myoglobin with oxygen. - 30s = 50% Pc restored - 2mins = most myoglobin stores replenished - 3mins = 100% Pc restores + 3l O2 consumed Breathing rate and heart rate remain elevated4 ways lactic acid is removed- converted into protein - removed through sweat and Urine - converted to pyruvate (for Krebs cycle+ETC) - goes to liver where it's converted to glucose/glycogen (cori cycle)Lactate producing capacity of sprint/power performanceElite sprinters will have a much better anaerobic endurance than non-elite sprinters. This is due to the increased buffering capacity of lactate. This means athletes can work at a higher intensity and recover quicker. Sprint athletes will also have an increased number of mitochondria and higher capillary density and myoglobin.Energy transferred during short the duration, high-intensity exerciseFor activities lasting up to 3 mins, it will mainly be that anaerobic glycolytic system being used. However it depends on the intensity the performer will be working e.g. 400m runner = 45-60s of exercise 800m runner = 3-4mins of exerciseOxygen consumption during low intensity exerciseWhen we start to exercise not enough O2 is sent to tissues for all energy productions to be met aerobically and therefore anaerobic systems need to supply the energy. As O2 isn't available for three men's a deficit will always build up. This is known as submaximal oxygen deficit.Oxygen consumption during high intensity exerciseThe deficit created will be much larger and is referred to as maximal accumulated oxygen deficit this is a good indicator of anaerobic capacity.V02 maxMaximum volume of oxygen that can be utilised and consumed by the working muscles per unit of time/minuteAnaerobic glycolytic system (lactacid)It produces of a lot of power but not quite as much as quickly as the ATPPC system. Large fuel supplies and doesn't take as quickly. The contribution of the fast glycolytic system to energy production increases rapidly after 10 seconds of intense exercise. Dropping power output as a TPPC begin to run out. By 30 seconds of sustained activity the majority of energy comes from the anaerobic glycolytic system. At 452 of sustained intense activity there is a second decline and power output. Exercise beyond this point has a growing reliance on the aerobic energy system.How does the fitness of a performer affect rate of lactate accumulation?A person who trains regularly will be in a better position to delay the onset of OBLA. This is due to an increased number of mitochondria and myoglobin and increased capillaries which leads to improved aerobic capacity.What is buffering?Buffering is an increased rate of lactate removal. Hydrogen ions are removed more efficiently.