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Cellular differentiation

The process by which a cell becomes specialized to perform a specific function

stem cell

an undifferentiated cell that can divide to form specialized cells

Embryonic stem cells

2 types of stem cells

can differentiate into any kind of cell

Tissue stem cells

2 types of stem cells

exist within specialized tissue

only able to differentiate into certan types of cells
(Bone marrow can differentiate to red/white blood cells, or platelets)

Digestive system

organ system that is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intstines, liver, pancreas and gall bladder; the system that takes in, breaks up, and digests food and then excrete waste.

The whole tract is lined with epithelial tissue


Takes food; digestion starts (mechanical with teeth/chemical with enzymes and saliva)


connects mouth to stomach
is lined with smooth muscles


hold food and churn it to continue the process of digestion

Small Intestine

narrow and long (6m long)
Goblet cells release mucus, and nutrients diffuese through the wall of the small intestine.

Large Intestine

shorter (1.5m) but larger in diameter
absorbs water from the indigestible food


produces fluid called bile, whch helps breakdown of fts in our food .


produces insulin which regulates the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Circulatory System

made up of the heart, blood, and the blood vessels; system that transports oxygen and nutrients throughout the body and carries away wastes


type of connective tissue that circulates throughout all the parts of your body


made up of 3 different types of tissues: cardiac muscle tissue, nerve tisue, and connective tissue.

Blood Vessels

3 types of blood vessels form a network of tube throughout the body to transport the blood.


a thick-walled blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
(greater pressure)


a thinner blood vessel that returns blood to the heart
(lower pressure)


a tiny thn-walled blood vessel that enables the exchane of gasses, nutrients, and wastes between the blood and the body tissues

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