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chapter 1 intro to criminology
Terms in this set (10)
Discipline of criminology
Criminal statistics: Collecting data that relate to crime, researching / implementing new methods of study, and studying the research of certain high and lows of criminal activity.
Sociology of law/ law and society / social studies: Doing research about different factors that can affect laws and society. Two important cases would be Miller v. Alabama and Glossip v. Gross.
Theory construction: Figuring out and understanding the cause of criminal activity. Being able to predict individual behavior. Most times it is difficult to find a particular set of reasons as to why someone turns to crime. Someone else in the same situation may not resort to the same drastic measures.
Criminal behavior systems: Studying different types of specific crime that includes violence theft , organized crime, white collar crime, and public order crimes. Being able to figure out why a specific crime would keep occuring.
Penology: punishment, sanctions, and corrections: Using the scientific method to Understand how the use of punishment to deter crime is effective or not. The correction of criminal activity
Victimology: has surveys to measure the crime and the cost of the crime to the victim. Ideas of risk probability. Creating ways to help victims, that includes different services to help cope or recover
why are criminal statistics important and what is ethical research
Criminal statistics are important because it could affect the lives of many. That includes topics like gun control, capital punishment, and they could have the power based on there statiscal data to make changes to different policies
Must take into consideration what to study, whom to study, and how to study. With these factors they lay out the way to be ethical in research.
Not only doing no harm to the participants, but also have understanding and respect for them as well.
In the field of criminology, what are essential criteria in the collection and computations of statistics?
Composing valid and reliable measures of criminal behavior would be one of the main focuses of data collection.
For unreported criminal activity, surveys are put out for victims to report loss and injury.
Self administered surveys with questions with the goal to find out the start as to why crime would begin. Criminologists have different factors and would compare that to certain crimes.
Who is Cesare Beccaria?
One of the first scholars to develop an understandning of why people commit crimes (Siegel, 2019, pg, 9)
Beccaria believed that everyone makes their own decisions and act any way they want (Siegel, 2019, pg, 9)
He thought that no one was born to commit crimes, they develop it over time (Siegel, 2019, pg, 9)
Beccaria believed that people who commit crimes will gain pleasure but avoid pain (Siegel, 2019, pg, 9)
Which theory traces criminal careers over the course of one's life? Explain this theory.
Classical Criminology theory because people either choose to be a criminal or lawful solutionsto meet thier needs or settle their problems (Siegel, 2019, pg, 9)
Crime can be controlled (Siegel, 2019, pg, 9)
Criminals fear punishment but like the feeling of achieving something illgeal (Siegel, 2019, pg, 9)
What does "let the punishment fit the crime" mean? Explain the criminological theory which uses this perspective.
The term "let the punishment fit the crime" was used when executions were still a common form of punishment for breaking the law.
The catchphase was used to mean, the significance of the crime would fit the significance of the punishment. (Siegel, 2017, pg 9)
Who was King Hammurabi? Why is he important in the study of criminal justice?
Hammurabi was the king of Babylon from 1792-1759.
Hammurabi created the Code of Hammurabi, the ancient laws found in the old testament of the bible.
The Code of Hammurabi was a system that based the crime and punishment on a physical revenge. The term "an eye for an eye", (Siegel, 2017, pg 17).
Define criminal acts and deviant behavior. What are the differences?
Criminal acts are deemed socially harmful or dangerous, specially defined, prohibited, and punished under the law (Siegel, 13) and deviant behavior is actions that depart from the social norm, some considered criminal others merely harmless aberrations (Siegel, 13). Not all crimes are deviant and not all deviant acts are illegal or criminal.
Define felony and misdemeanor. What is the difference?
A felony is a serious offense that carries a penalty of imprisonment, usually for one year or more, and may entail a loss of political rights (Siegel, 18). On the other hand, a misdemeanor is a minor crime usually punished by a short jail term and/or a fine (Siegel, 18). A felony is a serious offense meanwhile a misdemeanor is a minor offense.
Explain victim-precipitated homicide. Who developed this term? When? On what basis?
Victim-precipitated homicide refers to those killings in which the victim is a direct, positive precipitator of the incident. (Siegel, 7). Marvin Wolfgang developed this term back in 1958 when studying Patterns in Criminal Homicide and the nature of homicide and the relationship between victim and offender. He found that under many circumstances victims caused or precipitated the violent confrontation that led to their death (Siegel, 7).
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