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Anatomy Chapter 14
Terms in this set (56)
-also parasympathetic (ANS)
-motor: Muscles of mastication (chewing)
-sensory: Somatic sensory for face, oral cavity, nasal cavity, anterior 2/3 of tongue (not taste)
-motor: Muscles of facial expression
-sensory: Taste: anterior 2/3 of tongue, small patch at ear for somatic sensory
-visceral motor (parasympathetic): Lacrimal gland (tears),
submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (digestion) + nasal and palatine glands
-Hearing & balance (equilibrium)
-brainstem (inner ear, enters at pons)
-somatic motor: Stylopharyngeus muscle
-Visceral motor (parasympathetic): Digestion: Parotid salivary gland
-sensory: General visceral sensory, taste posterior 1/3 of tongue
-brainstem (medulla oblongata)
-Somatic motor: Larynx and pharyngeal muscles
-Visceral motor (parasympathetic): Thoracoabdominal viscera through 2/3 of the intestines; regulates heartrate, breathing and digestive system activity
-Sensory : Almost entirely visceral sensory
Most thoracoabdominal viscera
Ear canal, pharynx
-brainstem (medulla oblongata)
11 Spinal Accessory
-nerve to trapezius & sternocleidomastoid
-Origin: rootlets (of vagus nerve?) at cervical region of spinal cord
-nerve to tongue muscles
-brainstem (Medulla oblongata)
Which of the cranial nerves is called "the wanderer"?
-since it is the only cranial nerve to extend beyond the head/neck (viscera)
What is the job of the abducens nerve?
-It controls the eye's lateral rectus muscle
What are the nerves that innervates the eye?
3 Oculomotor Nerve, 4 Trochlear Nerve, 6 Abducens Nerve
Are the cranial nerves part of the peripheral or central nervous system?
Peripheral Nervous System
What are the two cranial nerves that originate in the forebrain?
1 Olfactory Nerve, 2 Optic Nerve
Which cranial nerve is not actually a nerve? What is it?
2 Optic Nerve
-is a brain tract
What is the only cranial nerve that extends past the head/neck?
Where is the accessory nerve believed to originate?
thought to originate from rootlets of Vagus nerve
Which branch of the trigeminal would you inject to numb your upper jaw? Lower?
upper jaw: V2 Maxillary Branch
lower jaw: V3 Mandibular Branch
nasal cavity: V1 Ophthalmic Branch
Which nerves innervate the tongue? Which are for taste (visceral sensory), which are for somatic sensory?
12 hypoglossal, 10 vagus, 9 glossopharyngeal, 7 facial, trigeminal 5
-taste (visceral sensory): 10 vagus, 9 glossopharyngeal, 7 facial
-somatic sensory: 10 vagus, 9 glossopharyngeal, mandilublar nerve
--1/3 of posterior tongue all 9 glossopharyngeal
Which nerves have parasympathetic fibers and act as visceral motor nerves?
How many spinal nerves are there?
8 cervical (C1-C8)
12 thoracic (T1-T12)
5 lumbar (L1-L5)
5 sacral (S1-S5)
1 coccygeal (Co1)
Why doesn't the spinal cord extend all the way through to the most caudal vertebrae?
-spinal cord terminated at Conus Medullaris, but continues as the Cauda Equina--Spinal nerves loosely extending below conus medullaris
-In the adult, the spinal cord ends ~L1-L2, but the nerves continue to be pulled along with the structures they innervate.
Why is it useful to inject anesthetic in the lumbar region rather than cervical or thoracic?
Needle between L4 & L5 vertebrae permits injection of anesthesia into epidural space without risk of damage to spinal cord (more space) nerves are "pushed" out of the way
Why are there 8 cervical spinal nerves if there only 7 cervical vertebrae?
-spinal nerves c1-c7 are exiting through the intervertebral foramen ABOVE their particular vertebrae
-c8 is going to exit BELOW cervical vertebrae
SN C1-C7 emerge SUPERIOR to their associated vertebrae.
SN C8 emerges INFERIOR to the C8 vertebra
T1-Co emerge INFERIOR to their associated vertebrae.
Be able to explain the relationship between rootlets, roots, spinal nerves, and rami
Rootlets exit spinal cord segment. Join to form dorsal or ventral root. Dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor) roots join to form spinal nerve.
Spinal nerves exit at intervertebral foramina.
Spinal nerve rebranches to form dorsal and ventral rami.
The rami have both sensory and motor fibers.
-rootlets form roots, roots join together to create a spinal nerve, spinal nerve exits at intervertebral foramen and rebranches into dorsal/ventral rami
Does a ramus have sensory fibers, motor fibers, or both?
both sensory and motor fibers
-Rami are lateral branches of spinal nerves and contain both sensory AND motor fibers
Does a root contain sensory fibers, motor fibers, or both? Which type is found in dorsal roots?
both: Dorsal (sensory) roots OR ventral (motor) roots
-Roots are medial to the spinal nerve and are either sensory OR motor
What part of the body are supplied by dorsal rami?
dorsum of neck and back
What part of the body are supplied by the ventral rami?
anterior/lateral neck, trunk, all limbs
What is a nerve plexus? Which rami form these?
A nerve plexus is a network of nerves...formed by VENTRAL rami only
Which spinal nerves do NOT form a plexuses?
Why can't damage to a single spinal nerve completely paralyze a limb muscle?
Each muscle in a limb receives its nerve supply from more than one spinal nerve...damage to one spinal nerve cannot completely paralyze any limb muscle.
4 Nerve Plexuses
Four Nerve Plexuses
1.Cervical plexus (C1-C5)
2. Brachial plexus (C5-T1)
3.Lumbar plexus (L1-L4)
4. Sacral plexus (L4-S4)
Why is the phrenic nerve so important for survival? Would damage to the c4 spinal nerve cause a person to completely lose their ability to breathe?
-Phrenic nerve receives fibers from C3, C4 and C5; innervates diaphragm for respiration.
What structure (generally) is innervated by the nerves of the brachial plexus?
nerves of the upper limb
What is being described by the mnemonic "Very Tired Drink Coffee"?
Main components of the Brachial Plexus:
What is innervated by the anterior division of the brachial plexus?
nerves that innervate anterior compartment muscles of upper limb and skin
What is innervated by the posterior division of the brachial plexus?
nerves that serve posterior compartment and skin
How many nerves comprise the Lumbar Plexus?
4 nerves (L1-L4)
What are the two main nerves of the anterior division of the sacral plexus?
Tibial Nerve and Pudendal Nerve
How many primary nerves are included in the posterior division of the sacral plexus?
5 primary nerves
The sciatic nerve is actually made up of what two nerves? Which division(s) of the sacral plexus does each nerve represent?
-tibial nerve (anterior division of Sacral Plexus) combines with common fibular nerve (posterior division of Sacral Plexus)
-Longest and thickest nerve of the body. Serves all of lower limb except anterior/medial thigh
Area of skin supplied by cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve.
All spinal nerves except C1.
Physicians find useful--numbness can pinpoint spinal cord injuries; can inject a single spinal nerve to deaden specific areas of skin
-inability to abduct arm to 90 degrees
-weakness flexing elbow
-anterior arm and thumb
-weakness flexing wrist, difficulty opposing thumbs, carpal tunnel syndrome
-posterior arm and forearm
-difficulty extending elbow, wrist drop
-deep hand muscles
-can't abduct/adduct fingers, "funny bone"
-anterior thigh muscles
-walking problems, knee buckles
-posterior leg and thigh
-shuffling gait, difficulty plantar flexing
-anterior and lateral leg
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