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Poly Sci exam 2
Terms in this set (69)
The aggregated political attitudes of ordinary people as revealed by surveys.
75% to 85% of public they are apathetic and least informed.
15-20% better informed, better informed more interested and general awareness and occasionally view political events.
5% very informed, they try and shape views of others. Political involvement sets them apart from everybody else.
Expresses opinion of public
Can be overt or subtle
violent or peaceful
organized or individual
causal or consuming
Political participation encompasses the many activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue.
Individual or political group advocating liberal(nonviolent modification for freedom) , radical (more involved) and revolutionary (change status quo through violence). All about change.
Individual or political group advocating conservative (maintain status quo), extremist(defend status quo) and reactionary(maintain status quo through violence).
Holding moderate political views.
Process of transmitting acquiring and modifying the political culture of a given community.
Primary political socialization
The Peer Group
Race & Religion
History and political event
Secondary Political Socialization
Home, friends, co workers
How we form opinions
Cues from leaders
Political leaders relatively unconstrained by it
Functions of public opinions for the political system
Public Opinion often plays an important role in shaping what government does, political leaders seem to pay attention to the public opinion but a causal claim cannot be made.
Connection between public opinion and public policy
It can help shape it
Twenty fourth amendment
Got rid of poll tax
Cannot discriminate against race, age
Cannot discriminate against sex.
21 to 18 to vote
voting rights act of 1965
Civi rights act that outlawed literacy tests
Factors explaining voting choice
Issues and Policies
Motor voter act of 1993
a law that enables prospective voters to register when they obtain or renew a driver's license.
Split ticket voting
a ballot on which not all votes have been cast for candidates of the same party.
A form of election in which voters look back at the performance of a party in power and cast ballots on the basis of how well it did in office.
voters will vote to decide what the government will do in the near future by choosing one or another responsible party.
A general election in which most members of a political body are chosen ex. legislative body
Partisan election - people run under party label
Nonpartisan election - no indication on which party
Choose candidate to represent party
Closed primary - only people in party can vote
Open primary - voters can vote for either party
issue on ballot
a general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision. It is put on the ballot by state legislatures.
citizens put proposed laws and constitutional amendments on the ballot for voter approval.
voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before his or her term has ended
An election in which the minority party is able to overcome the long-standing partisan orientation of the based on temporary or short-term forces.
sharp changes in issues, party leaders, the regional and demographic bases of power of the two parties, and structure or rules of the political system
things stay the same
Same party remain in control but with different stance on some issues
The characteristics of the american voter before 1960
most voters cast their ballots primarily on the basis of partisan identification (which is often simply inherited from their parents), and that independent voters are actually the least involved in and attentive to politics. This theory of voter choice became known as the Michigan model.
The characteristics of the american voter after 1960
Decline in political participation
Decline in trust in government
Candidate image is more important than party.
A collection of people who identify with a group label and influence public policy as a whole.
They do not attach themselves to a group label
group within a party to push a special interest
Alliance of individuals who have similar opinions who join together.
Functions of political parties
serves as personal agencies
organizes and operating government
opposing the party in power
focusing responsibility in government action
three elements of political party
Party organization (people who identify with party)
Party in gov. (people in office)
Party in electorate (vote for party itself)
Explanation of the two party system
During the nations formative years the major divide was the adoption of the constitution. The patterns of competing groups reestablished themselves during Washington administration.
Common basic value explanation
the absence of cleavage in the social economic and political fabric of the nation undermines the rationale.
Most votes win so other parties do not look as attractive.
A group of individuals who share a set of ideas and beliefs on politics and economy focus more on issues
Party that just focuses on one issue
Parties formed by a split within one of the major parties
Economic protest party
a political party dominated by feelings of economic discontent
How do parties contribute to democratic process
Keep elected officials responsive
Stimulate political interest
Help people make sense of complexity in politics
Make government work
An organized body in which members share common views, actively carry on programs to influence specific policies
Basis of interest group strength
social base smaller groups more effective
Theories of origins of interest groups
Disturbance theory ( Something happens and people come together to address a certain issue
Selective benefits theory ( People feel they will benefit)
Market place theory (someone sells the idea)
Response to government theory ( people oppose government public policy.
Political functions of mass media
Communicate information to public
Gatekeeper (what issues politicians must address)
Watchdog (what our gov needs to improve or do)
selector and screener of candidates (Presents candidates and screens their background)
functions of media for the individual
70% people get news from tv and 50% get it only from tv
Market place for ideas
information relayed through mass media to the public
technology used to reach public through mass communication
Federal communication commission
regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable.
The most fundamental beliefs in a national population about human nature, the country, government and the economy
Agents of socialization
Those institutions and individuals that shape core beliefs and attitudes of people.
The notion that collective public opinion is rational in the sense that it is generally stable and when it changes it does so as an understandable response to events.
The policy of avoiding undue involvement in the affairs of other countries and multilateral institutions
Those who believe the united states should vigorously use its military and diplomatic power to pursue American national interests in the world, but on a go it alone basis.
Foreign affair stance by which we should seek cooperation of other nations and other multilateralist institutions.
interest group organized to support a cause or ideology
Interest groups mobilize local constituencies and shape public opinion to support groups goals.
Political action committee
entity created by and interest group whose purpose is to collect money and make contributions to candidates in federal elections.
the common practice in which former government officials become lobbyist for interests with whom they formally dealt in their official capacity.
Party's statement of its positions on the issues of the day passed at the quadrennial national convention.
the process of selecting delegates to the national party conventions
More votes than any other candidate but less than a majority of all votes casts.
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