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HIV/ AIDS Lecture
Terms in this set (140)
The origin of the virus is obscure but it is probable that infection arose in?
Retrospective screening of stored sera has shown that the earliest known infection occurred in?
Kinshasa, Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1959
The discovery suggests that the multiple of global AIDS viruses?
All shared a common African ancestor within the past 40 to 50 years
New infection in central?
Africa perhaps as early as 1920s-30s
The simplest & most plausible explanation for the cross-species transmission of SIV or HIV is?
What is the SIV?
It was the original HIV virus
Simian virus (SIV) is found in?
The virus was transmitted from an ape or monkey to a human when?
A hunter or bushmeat vendor/handler was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering the animal
The resulting exposure to blood or other bodily fluids of the animal can result in?
One of the earliest documented HIV-1 infections was discovered in?
Preserved blood sample taken in 1959 from a man
The earliest documented HIV-1 was from in preserved blood sample taken from a man from?
Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (now Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo)
However it wasn't know if the earliest documented HIV-1 man ever developed?
AIDS & died of it's complications
A second early document of HIV-1 infection was discovered in?
Preserved lymph node biopsy sample taken in 1960 from a woman from Leopoldville, Belgian Congo
Earliest document of HIV-1?
1959 Congolese man
Second earliest document of HIV-1?
1960 Congolese woman
In May of 1969 a 15 yr old, Robert Rayford, an African American male died of?
Kaposi's Sarcoma at St. Louis City Hosp.
In 1987 researchers at Tulane University School of Medicine detected?
"A virus related closely or related" to HIV-1 in Robert Rayford's preserved blood & tissues
Doctors speculated that Robert Rayford was?
Prostitute, though the patient did not discuss his sexual history w/ them in detail
A Norwegian sailor, w/ the alias name of Arvid Noe, his wife, & 9 yr old daughter died of?
Arvid Noe had first presented symptoms in 1969 after?
He first spent time in ports along the West African coastline
Arvid Noe had a gonorrhea infection during his first African voyage shows?
He was sexually active at this time.
Tissue samples taken from Arvid Noe & his wife were tested and?
Found to contain HIV-1 (group O)
1978, Gay men in the U.S & Sweden & heterosexuals in Tanzania & Haiti begin showing?
Signs of what will later be known as AIDS
Hemophiliacs can get HIV because?
Transfusions may carry the HIV virus
1% of all AIDS patients are?
U.S- first reported from?
Los Angeles/ San Francisco, Bay are & New York City
At this time an infectious etiology was suspected especially when it was perceived the disease could be transmitted by?
Blood transfusions & blood products (hemophiliacs)
The term AIDS;
Acquired immune deficiency syndrom
The term AIDS was used for the first time in?
July the 27th of 1982
Other opportunistic diseases?
Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus evolves in?
Central nervous system
Pneumocystis carinii= jiroveci pneumonia & mucosal candidiasis (yeast infection) in?
Previous healthy men
Gottleib et al. NE J. Medicine 305; 1425-143, 1981
Up to 2007, worldwide deaths?
35 million (5 million children)
Spread among IV drug abusers, hemophiliacs, and?
Haitian immigrants that were fleeing a dictator
CDC&P in Atlanta coined the terms?
AIDS & HIV
How many people in the U.S alone live w/ AIDS?
How many males in the U.S have AIDS?
How many females in the U.S have AIDS?
How many children (below 13) in the U.S have AIDS?
Newly infected HIV in 2007?
People living w/ AIDS/HIV?
What percentage of people don't know they have AIDS/HIV?
AIDS deaths in 2007?
18.5 million (to 2010)
In the U.S what percentage of people did not live to the age of 45?
Geographic regions affected; Sub-Saharan Africa?
22 million (70%)
Geographic regions affected; Southeast Asia?
Geographic regions affected; Latin America & Eastern Europe/ central Asia both have?
Geographic regions affected; North America?
1.3 million (nearly the lowest)
Geographic regions affected; Oceania/ Australia/ New Zealand?
The number of people living w/ HIV has risen from around 8 million in 1990 to more than?
35 million & is still growing
Around 70% of people living w/ HIV are?
In the sub- Saharan Africa
South Africa what percentage of the population are living with HIV/AIDS?
20.1% which is 13% of the world's total
Botswana is one of the countries that has been?
Hit the hardest by the worldwide HIV epidemic
End of 2002 estimated how many people in Botswana living w/ HIV?
Botswana is the country w/ a total population of 1.6 million, which gives it a prevalence rate of how much?
39%, the highest in the world
Life expectancy in Botswana?
HIV was introduced into South Africa from two sources; Into the homosexual community, from North America & Europe & into?
Heterosexual community from north of borders by truck drivers, returning exiles, migrant laborers
In capital of Zimbabwe, what percentage of pregnant women were infected?
32%, which is a third
What percentage of people in Africa probably do not know they are infected?
In India a sharp increase in the estimated number of HIV infections, from few thousand in the early 1990s to working estimate between?
3.8-4.6 living with HIV/AIDS in 2002
With India having a population over 1 billion, the HIV epidemics will have a major impact on?
Overall spread of HIV in Asia & the Pacific & indeed worldwide
AIDS/HIV in China' Government officials estimate that the total number of people infected w/ HIV is around?
Total number of people infected w/ HIV in China around 600,000 despite an official figure last year suggesting it had only?
22,517 people infected w/ HIV
But many experts working in China believe that even the figure of 600,000 is a serious underestimate & that the epidemic is much more widely spread?
W/ the true number of people living w/ HIV being closer to 1.5 million people
Approx. 1 million (more than 500,000 have died from it) living in?
The U.S w/ AIDS
What percentage of white people have AIDS?
What percentage of African Americans have AIDS?
What percentage of Hispanics have AIDS?
What percentage of Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, & Alaska Natives have AIDS?
The rate of HIV diagnoses among Asians/ Pacific Islanders increased by?
An estimate of 61% between 2001-2005
How many people in New York are living w/ AIDS?
How many people in California are living w/ AIDS?
How many people in Florida are living w/ AIDS?
How many people in Texas are living w/ AIDS?
How many people in New Jersey are living w/ AIDS?
How many people in Arkansas are living w/ AIDS?
How many people in Oklahoma are living w/ AIDS?
Austin, Texas people w/AIDS
Atlanta, GA people w/ AIDS
Chicago, IL people/ AIDS
Dallas, TX people w/ AIDS
Detroit, MI people w/ AIDS
Houston, TX people w/ AIDS
Los Angeles people w/ AIDS
Kansas City people w/ AIDS
Little Rock, AR people w/ AIDS
Memphis, TN people w/ AIDS
Miami, FL people w/ AIDS
New York people w/ AIDS
Philadelphia people w/ AIDS
Oklahoma City, OK people w/ AIDS
Omaha people w/ AIDS?
Washington, DC people w/ AIDS
The U.S Centers for Disease Control & prevention (CDC) estimates that around 1.1 million adults& adolescents are ?
Living w/ HIV in the USA, including those not yet diagnosed & those who have already progressed to AIDS
At the end of 2007, an estimated 600,000 people were living w/ a diagnosis of?
HIV infection in the 37 states and 5 U.S dependent areas w/ confidential name-based reporting
An estimated 471,000 people were living w/?
AIDS in America in 2007
In 2007, the District of Columbia reported a far higher rate of AIDS?
Diagnoses than any other area
New York has accounted for almost?
A fifth of all cases
Los Angeles (66,005) & Miami (62,414) also?
Providing substantial numbers
In 2008, the highest rates of new AIDS diagnoses were in Miami (42.8 per 100,000 people), Baton Rouge(40) and?
New Orleans (32.4) & Baltimore (32.3)
Among the 50 states the lowest numbers were in?
N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Vermont, & Wyoming
Of the 282,250 men ( of 13 yrs or older) who were living w/ AIDS 66% were men who?
Had sex w/ men (MSM)
Of the 282,250 men ( of 13 yrs or older) who were living w/ AIDS, 14% were?
Intravenous drug users (IVDU)
Of the 282,250 men (of 13 yrs or older) who were living w/ AIDS 11% were?
Exposed through high risk heterosexual contact (HC)
Of the 282,250 men(of 13 yrs or older) who were living w/ AIDS 8% were both?
MSM & IDU
180,000 + women diagnosed w/ AIDS, 50% of infection via?
Heterosexual contact. 40% IV drug abuse, 10% other risk unknown
Number of reported new HIV diagnoses among women has fallen slightly in recent years, but the proportion probably due to?
High risk heterosexual contact has risen from 76% in 2001 to 80% in 2005
Number of new AIDS diagnoses among women rose by?
an estimated 17% between 2002& 2005
During the 1990s, epidemic shifted steadily toward growing proportion of AIDS cases in?
Blacks & Hispanics & in women (30% of new cases) & towards a decreasing proportion in MSM. Although this group remains the largest single exposure group
Blacks & Hispanics among whom AIDS rates have been markedly higher than among whites have been?
Disproportionately affected since the early years of the epidemic (last 20 years)
In absolute numbers, blacks have outnumbered whites in new AIDS diagnoses & deaths since 1996 &?
In the number of people living w/ AIDS since 1998.
Of new infections, 54% are among blacks, 26% whites, &?
Dr. Luc Montagnier studied where?
Pasteur Inst. France
Who called it LAV, lymphadenopathy associated virus?
Dr. Luc Montagnier
Dr. Luc Montagnier won the nobel prize in what?
Physiology or Medicine
Dr. Robert Gallo studied where?
National Cancer Inst. Bethesda, MD
Dr. Gallo called it?
HTLV-III or Human T- Lymphotropic virus III
HTLV-II or Human T- lymphotropic viruss III and Lymphadenopathy associated virus are both?
Isolates w/ same genetic make up
Who was black balled for their views?
Dr. Peter Duesberg
Dr. Peter Duesberg started questioning HIV in 1987, on the basis of ?
His experience w/ retroviruses
Duesberg has challenged the?
Virus AIDS hypothesis
Duesberg has instead proposed the hypothesis that the various American/European AIDS disease are brought on?
By the long term consumption of recreational drugs and/or AZT itself, which is prescribed to prevent or treat AIDS
Duesberg claimed there is no virological, nor epidemiological evidence to back up?
HIV-AIDS hypothesis. Instead the virus is biochemically inactive & harmless, & AIDS is not behaving as a contagious disease
Dr. Duesberg book is called?
AIDS; Virus or drug induced
Dr. Kary Mullis discovered?
Polymerase chain reaction
Dr. Kary Mullis book?
Playing Naked in a MInd field
Dr. Kary Mullis has drawn controversy for his association w/ prominent AIDS denialist?
Peter Duesberg, claiming AIDS is an arbitrary diagnosis only used when HIV antibiotics are found in patient's blood
Dr. Kary Mullins uses this drug and believes in?
LSD, astrology and there isn't any global warming
Max Essex & Phyllis Kanki are both at?
Harvard School of Public Health
HIV is believed to have evolved from related viruses that infect African monkeys, namely the?
Simian immunodeficiency viruses (which causes a similar disease to AIDS in monkeys
HIV 2 is more closely related to?
SIV than HIV 1
It is not known how the original transfer of the virus from?
Monkey to man took place
These viruses mutate readily which?
Explains the rapid subsequent divergence
Director of National Inst. Allergy & Infectious Disease, Bethesda, MD?
Dr. Fauci is an immunologist who serves as one of the key advisors for?
White House department of Health & Human Services on global AIDS issues
Dr. Fauci quote on HIV?
HIV is a clever virus
Other hypothesis for the origin of AIDS have been proposed, AIDS denialism argues that HIV or AIDS does not exist or that AIDS is not caused by?
HIV; some of its proponents believe that AIDS is caused by lifestyles including sexuality or drug uses, and not by HIV
Some conspiracy theories allege that HIV was created in a?
Bioweapons lab, perhaps as an agent or genocide or an accident. These hypothesis have been rejected by scientific consensus
The Caribbean Island conquered from Spain in 1898 that becme an important American coloy
What is one alternative contemporary theory of migration proposed by either geneticists or archaeologists? and what does it propose?
What tensions arose between Farmers and the Railroad? Why did this happen?
Which statement best summarizes what Thomas Jefferson saw as an American advantage over Europe when it came to establishing a republican form of gov't?
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