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35 terms

Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 35 Vocab

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Specialized Cells
cells uniquely suited to perform a particular function
Epithelial Tissue
includes glands and tissues that cover interior and exterior body surfaces.
Connective Tissue
provides support for the body and connects its parts.
Nervous Tissue
transmits nerve impulses throughout the body.
Muscle Tissue
enables the body to move, along with the bones.
organs
groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism.
organ systems
groups of organs that perform closely related functions.
homeostasis
the process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in external environments.
Feedback inhibition
negative feedback. the process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus.
neurons
cells that transmit impulses, or the electrical signals that are messages carried by the nervous system.
cell body
largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm.
dendrites
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
axon
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmisssion speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
resting potential
electrical charge across the cell membrane of a resting neuron.
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon changing the charge from negative to positive.
threshold
the minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
synapse
location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell.
neurotransmitters
chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell.
meninges
three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped.
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid in the space between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system.
cerebrum
the largest part of the brain; controls conscious thought and stores memories.
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
brain stem
the part of the brain that lies between the cerebellum and spinal cord that controls the body's involuntary actions.
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
reflex
quick automatic response to a stimulus.
sensory receptors
detect changes in the environment and stimulate neurons to send nerve impulses to the brain.
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
lens
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
cones
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
cochlea
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
semicircular canals
three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement.