Milady Cosmetology Chapter 12
Milady Standard Cosmetology Edition 2012
Terms in this set (54)
science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions
Study of substances containing the element carbon
Study of substances without the element carbon but may contain the element hydrogen
Any substance that has mass and occupies space.
the simplest form of chemical matter; this cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity
the smallest chemical components (particles) of an element; structures that make up the element and have the same properties of the element
a chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions
Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions
compounds; a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.
states of matter
the 3 different physical forms of matter - Solid, Liquid, and Gas
characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the substance
characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance
a change in the form or physical properties of a substance, without a chemical reaction or the creation of a new substance
a change in the chemical composition or makeup of a substance
A chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen, to produce an oxide
redox; a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen)
substance that releases oxygen
a substance that adds hydrogen to a chemical compound or subtracts oxygen from the compound
the process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance through a chemical reaction
a chemical reaction in which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance
Chemical reactions that release a significant amount of heat.
rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light
a chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions
A physical combination of matter in any proportions.
a stable physical mixture of two or more substances
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
the substance that dissolves the solute and makes a solution
liquids that are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions
liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions
unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid
An unstable physical mixture of 2 or more immiscible substances, plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier
An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.
A contraction of surface active agents; surfaces that allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify.
Having an affinity or attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving)
oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion
Oil droplets emulsified in water.
water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion
water droplets emulsified in oil
Alcohols that evaporate easily.
alkaline substance used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products
colorless gas with a pungent odor that is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen
A sweet, colorless, oily substance that is used as a solvent and a moisturizer in skin and body creams
special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers
volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
compounds that contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile)
an atom or molecule that carriers an electrical charge
the separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions
an ion with a negative electrical charge
ion with a positive electrical charge
a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance
a solution that has a pH below 7.0 (neutral)
a solution that has a pH above 7.0 (neutral)
Multiples of ten
alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs)
acids derived from plants (mostly fruits) that are often used to exfoliate the skin
a colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions.
bases; compounds that react with acids to form salts