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Terms in this set (42)
Normal HCO3 is ______ - _______
normal base exess is ____ -_____
-2 to +2
Causes of respiratory acidosis include ____________, CNS depression (drugs, injury, disease) and asphyxia.
Signs of _____ ____________ include headache, dizziness, confusion, decreased LOC.
Causes of respiratory ____________ include hyperventilation, respiratory stimulation (drugs, disease, infection, fever) and gram negative bacteria.
alkali blood does not transport this electrolyte well, leading to symptoms of hypo___________.
Signs of hypocalcemia include tingling of fingers, twitching, muscle tremors, ____________ spasms, tetany, lightheadedness, dizziness.
Metabolic acidosis is caused by hydrogen ion _________ in the body
Signs of metabolic acidosis include ____________ respirations, confusion, lethargy, and coma.
Vomiting tends to cause metabolic __________; diarrhea tends to cause metabolic ____________.
Metabolic alkalosis can result from loss of hydrogen ions due to vomiting or NG to suction, diuresis, excessive ____________ (baking soda for GERD, or excessive IV administration)
Pediatric ETT tube sizing: cuffed tube: (Child's age/4) + ____.
_______ = lack of CO2 (poor)
_______ indicates presence of CO2 (good)
Color change in the capnometer changes within 2 breaths but may take up to ____ breaths and may be unreliable after prolonged arrest.
Kussmaul's sign: elevation of jugular venous distension during ____________
average age of onset of chronic bronchitis is ____ to _____ years
average age of onset of emphysema is _____ to _____ years
Blood gases in a person with chronic bronchitis will show hypoxemia and ____________
Blood gases in a person with emphysema will show normal oxygen and decreased ____________
Physical findings of someone with chronic bronchitis include _______ ____________ (right-sided HF with signs such as hepatomegaly, Kussmaul's sign), polycythemia with increased risk for DVT, PE, MI, etc.
Physical findings of someone with emphysema include pursed-lip breathing, accessory muscle use, increased diameter of the chest, ____________, speaking in short sentences.
A fat embolus can occur ______ to ______ hours after a long bone fracture such as a fracture of the femur, humerus, or pelvis.
A petechial rash on the axilla, chest, and conjunctiva are signs of a _______ _________
________ emboli are seen after central line insertion, defective IV tubing, or diving incidents.
Signs of right sided H in addition to a continuous drum-like milll-wheel murmur indicate a ______ ________
What is the best position for a patient with an air emboli?
left lateral decubitus position
Head trauma or seizures can cause _________ __________ due to ADH release
____________ pulmonary edema can be caused by decreased contractility (HF, MI, myocarditis, blunt cardiac injury) increased rate (severe anemia, hypothyroidism) and increased afterload (HTN)
Acute bronchitis is caused by __________ inflammation of the upper airways; often associated with URI.
ss of a ruptured diaphragm include bowel sounds in the middle to lower chest, lower chest/abdominal/epigastric pain that radiates to left shoulder, dyspnea, heart sounds shifted to the _______ side of the chest, signs of obstructive shock, _____________.
ribs ______ -_______ carries a high mortality due to injuries of the neurologic, tracheobronchial and vascular structures in the area.
ribs 4-9 are commonly associated with _________ trauma
ribs 10-12 on the right are frequently associated with _______ trauma
ribs 10-12 on the left are frequently associated with _______ trauma
A simple pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space, causing a negative pressure and collapse of the lung. Causes include trauma, _________ (diving incidents, explosions), and emphysema.
A ____________ pneumothorax occurs when an accumulation of air in the pleural space is so great it compresses the contents of the chest cavity to one side or the other.
Fluid accumulation in the pleural space will result in...
dull ache on side of fluid
absent _________ over fluid
decreased breath sounds
egophany near top of fluid
air accumulation in the pleural space will result in...
sharp pain that radiates to shoulder affected side,
decreased breath sounds
In order to assess __________ have patient say "99" while holding hands against the chest. Vibrations will transmit through air, not fluid.
in order to assess __________
have the pt say. "e" while holding a stethoscope near the top of the fluid line; the E will sound like an a through fluid
In regard to hemethorax, a venous bleed is usually self limiting, arterial bleeds may cause losses of 1,500 mL of blood. Signs of an arterial bleed include accumulation of more than 1,000 mL of blood initially or more than _______ mL over 2-4 hours.
treatment for a tension pneumothorax: needle decompression requires a 14-16 gauge needle, 3-6cm long, inserted into _____ intercostal space a the __________ line.
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