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Allergy/Immune Chapter 56 questionnaire

Terms in this set (10)

A person with a latex allergy should be taught to wear a medic alert bracelet and carry an epinephrine pen.

A person with a latex allergy should be taught to wear a medic alert bracelet and carry an epinephrine pen. The type I latex allergy is a response that can manifest itself anywhere from skin erythema to full-blown anaphylactic shock. An epinephrine pen may be required for immediate intervention. Eight percent to 17% of health care workers regularly exposed to latex are sensitized. The increase in allergic reactions has coincided with the sharp increase in glove use related to the introduction of universal precautions (now known as Standard Precautions) against infectious diseases, which began in 1987. Type I allergic reaction is a response to natural rubber latex proteins that occurs within minutes of contact. This more serious type of latex allergy can result in anaphylactic shock. Type IV contact dermatitis is caused by the chemicals used in the manufacturing process of latex gloves. It is a delayed reaction that occurs within 6 to 48 hours after exposure and begins with dryness, pruritus, fissuring, and cracking of the skin. This is followed by erythema, edema, and crusting at 24 to 48 hours. Chronic exposure can lead to skin changes; the dermatitis may extend beyond the area of physical contact with the allergen. Using oil-based creams or lotions before donning gloves is not recommended, because lotions tend to break down the latex in the gloves and increase the likelihood of sensitization.REF: Pages 1971-1972
Careful selection of blood donors

Use of microaggregate filters for blood administration

Close monitoring of the patient receiving a blood transfusion

Carefully checking donor and recipient numbers before administering blood

Careful selection of blood donors is an important method of improving safety for blood transfusions. Also important is careful typing and cross-matching of blood from donor to recipient. Use of microaggregate filters for blood administration is an important method of improving safety for blood transfusions. Filters are important to trap small particles or precipitates to keep them from entering the patient's bloodstream. The patient receiving a blood transfusion needs to be monitored closely, especially early in the transfusion, for signs or symptoms of a transfusion reaction. The most severe reactions occur within the first 15 minutes of the start of the transfusion. Moderate reactions can occur anytime during the first 90 minutes. Carefully checking donor and recipient numbers before administering blood is an important method of improving safety for blood transfusions. Mismatched blood has a high rate of transfusion reactions and can have very serious consequences for the patient. It is important to administer blood within 4 hours of refrigeration; blood components may be administered within 6 hours of refrigeration. Blood that is to be transfused must be refrigerated until 1 hour before administration. This is done at the blood bank, not on the nursing unit. If the blood cannot be administered within that time frame, it must be returned to the blood bank.REF: Pages 1972-1973